Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Weight Change Following US Military Service Int J Obes (Lond) 2013 Feb;37(2):244-53

Littman AJ, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ, Powell TM, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study provides the first prospectively collected evidence for an increased rate of weight gain around the time of military discharge that may explain previously reported higher rates of obesity in veterans, and identifies characteristics of higher-risk groups. Discharge from military service presents a window of risk and opportunity to prevent unhealthy weight gain in military personnel and veterans.

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The Occupational Role of Women in Military Service: Validation of Occupation and Prevalence of Exposures in the Millennium Cohort Study International Journal of Environmental Health Research 2007 Aug;17(4):271-84

Smith TC, Jacobson IG, Smith B, Hooper TI, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Data on women's occupations are reliable, and occupational codes can be well correlated with exposures of concern. This was an award-winning presentation at a Navy conference in 2006.

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Profile of Two Cohorts: UK and US Prospective Studies of Military Health International Journal of Epidemiology 2012 Oct;41(5):1272-82

Pinder RJ, Greenberg N, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Hooper TI, Murphy D, Ryan MA, Smith B, Smith TC, Wells TS, Wessely S, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Despite differences and limitations in methodologies, analyses of these two cohorts provide the prospect of driving improvement and innovation in military health and extending findings to other occupational populations.

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Longitudinal Assessment of Mental Disorders, Smoking, and Hazardous Drinking Among a Population-Based Cohort of US Service Members Journal of Addiction Medicine 2014 Jul-Aug;8(4):271-281

Smith TC, LeardMann CA, Smith B, Jacobson IG, Miller SC, Wells TS, Boyko EJ, Ryan MAK

This study investigated mental disorders in association with hazardous drinking and cigarette smoking. These prospective data highlight the inter-related nature of these symptoms and behaviors and the potentially complex bi-directional causal pathway. Military health professionals should consider the constellation of potential behaviors and symptoms during the treatment of specific mental health illnesses and negative health behaviors.

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Longitudinal Examination of the Influence of Individual Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Clusters of Symptoms on the Initiation of Cigarette Smoking Journal of Addiction Medicine In Press

Seelig AD, Bensley KM, Williams EC, Armenta RF, Rivera AC, Peterson AV, Jacobson IG, Littman AJ, Maynard C, Bricker JB, Rull RP, Boyko EJ

for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined the risk for smoking initiation by each of the 17 PTSD symptoms that characterize the disorder. No significant associations between specific PTSD symptoms and subsequent smoking initiation were observed in this study population. Among the subsample who screened positive for PTSD, "feeling irritable or having angry outbursts" and "feeling as though your future will somehow be cut short" were associated with a higher risk of subsequent smoking initiation.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Association With Subsequent Risky and Problem Drinking Initiation Journal of Addiction Medicine In Press

Bensley KM, Seelig AD, Armenta RF, Rivera AC, Peterson AV, Jacobson IG, Littman AJ, Maynard C, Bricker JB, Boyko EJ, Rull RP, and Williams EC

This study investigated the association between PTSD symptoms and symptom clusters and the initiation of risky and problem drinking. One PTSD symptom (irritability/anger) was associated with a higher risk of risky drinking initiation. Five PTSD symptoms (restricted affect, sense of foreshortened future, exaggerated startle response, sleep disturbance, and irritability/anger) and two symptom clusters (dysphoric arousal and emotional numbing) were associated with an increased risk of problem drinking initiation.
A Comparison of the PRIME-MD PHQ-9 and PHQ-8 in a Large Military Prospective Study, The Millennium Cohort Study Journal of Affective Disorders May 2013; 148(1): 77-83

Wells TS, Horton JL, LeardMann CA, Jacobson IG, and Boyko EJ

The PHQ-9 is a validated tool for depression screening, however recently an abbreviated version (PHQ-8) is increasingly being used in survey research that excludes the last and most sensitive item. This study compared the performance of the PHQ-8 with the PHQ-9 in a large, population-based sample of current and former military service members. Excellent agreement was detected between the two instruments, suggesting that the PHQ-8 performs well when screening for depression in similar populations.

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Millennium Cohort: The 2001-2003 Baseline Prevalence of Mental Disorders in the US Military Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2007 Feb;60(2):192-201

Riddle JR, Smith TC, Smith B, Corbeil TE, Engel CC, Wells TS, Hoge CW, Adkins J, Zamorski M, Blazer D, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

The baseline prevalence of mental disorders in this 22-year longitudinal study compares favorably with other civilian and military populations.

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Millennium Cohort: Enrollment Begins a 21-year Contribution to Understanding the Impact of Military Service Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2007 Feb;60(2):181-91

Ryan MA, Smith TC, Smith B, Amoroso P, Boyko EJ, Gray GC, Gackstetter GD, Riddle JR, Wells TS, Gumbs G, Corbeil TE, Hooper TI, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

A foundation report, this describes original enrollment methods and challenges of the Millennium Cohort Study. Characteristics of the first 77,047 participants are detailed and shown to strongly represent the population-based sample of the US military from which they were drawn.

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Self-Reported Mental Health Among US Military Personnel, Prior and Subsequent to the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2004 Aug;46(8):775-82

Smith TC, Smith B, Corbeil TE, Riddle JR, and Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Accepted without revision and featured by journal editors, this early analysis leveraged Millennium Cohort data to conclude that military members displayed stronger mental health characteristics soon after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The authors suggest this may be attributed to resilience and/or an outpouring of support for the US military mission.

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