Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
The effects of exposure to documented open-air burn pits on respiratory health among deployers of the Millennium Cohort Study Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2012 June;54(6):708-716

Smith B, Wong CA, Boyko EJ, Phillips CJ, Gackstetter GD, Ryan MAK, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Burn pit exposure within 3 or 5 miles was not associated with newly reported asthma, chronic bronchitis or emphysema, or self-reported respiratory symptoms. In general, these findings do not support an elevated risk for respiratory outcomes among personnel deployed within proximity of documented burn pits in Iraq. Increased symptom reporting, however, was observed among Air Force deployers located within 2 miles of Joint Base Balad, though this finding was marginally significant with no evidence of trend.

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Smokeless tobacco use related to military deployment, cigarettes, and mental health symptoms in a large, prospective cohort study among US service members Addiction 2012 May;107(5):983-994

Hermes ED, Wells TS, Smith B, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Miller SC, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Chronic use of smokeless tobacco has been linked to poor military training performance, early discharge, and a host of medical problems from cancer to heart disease. Smokeless tobacco initiation occurred in 1.9% and persistent use in 8.9% of Millennium Cohort participants. The study showed that deployment, combat exposure, smoking, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder increased the risk for smokeless tobacco initiation, while deployment and combat exposure increased the risk for persistent use.

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Individual augmentee deployment and newly reported mental health morbidity Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2012 May;54(5):615-620

Granado NS, Zimmermann L, Smith B, Jones KA, Wells TS, Ryan MAK, Slymen DL, Koffman RL, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Individual augmentees (IAs), who presumably have lower social support or unit cohesion, were not at increased risk for PTSD or mental health symptoms following deployment compared with non-IA deployers. It is likely that social isolation was not highly influential among Navy IAs in this study.

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Profile of two cohorts: UK and US prospective studies of military health International Journal of Epidemiology 2012 Oct;41(5):1272-82

Pinder RJ, Greenberg N, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Hooper TI, Murphy D, Ryan MA, Smith B, Smith TC, Wells TS, Wessely S, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Despite differences and limitations in methodologies, analyses of these two cohorts provide the prospect of driving improvement and innovation in military health and extending findings to other occupational populations.

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Prospective evaluation of mental health and deployment experience among women in the US military American Journal of Epidemiology 2012;176(2):135-45

Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Smith B, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GG, Ryan MAK, Wells TS, MacDermid Wadsworth S, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Women with reported combat exposures were more likely to have mental health symptoms than women who deployed without combat associated exposures and women who never deployed.

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Body building, energy, and weight loss supplements are associated with deployment and physical activity in U.S. Military personnel Annals of Epidemiology 2012;22:318-330

Jacobson IG, Horton JL, Smith B, Wells TS, Boyko EJ, Lieberman HR, Ryan MAK, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Nearly half of the population studied reported use of energy, body building, or weight loss supplements, with energy supplements being the most highly endorsed (38%) supplement type. Deployment experience, physical activity, problem drinking, and suboptimal sleep emerged as important characteristics associated with supplement use, which may be of importance to medical planners and military policy makers in targeting adverse event monitoring and for future research determining how supplements affect performance and health over time.

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Suicides Among Military Personnel Reply Journal of the American Medical Association 2013 Dec;310(23):2565-2566

Hoge CW, LeardMann CA, Boyko EJ

Discusses the complexity of suicidal behaviors and some challenges related to this type of research, while highlighting the strengths of using data from the Millennium Cohort to study suicide.

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Weight change following US Military service Int J Obes (Lond) 2013 Feb;37(2):244-53

Littman AJ, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ, Powell TM, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study provides the first prospectively collected evidence for an increased rate of weight gain around the time of military discharge that may explain previously reported higher rates of obesity in veterans, and identifies characteristics of higher-risk groups. Discharge from military service presents a window of risk and opportunity to prevent unhealthy weight gain in military personnel and veterans.

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Risk factors for lower extremity tendinopathies in military personnel The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine 2013 Jan-Jun;1(1) 2325967113492707

Owens BD, Wolf JM, Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Ryan MAK, Gackstetter GD, Smith TC

This study found that deployment was associated with the development of plantar fasciitis. Modifiable risk factors including being overweight or obese were associated with both Achilles tendinopathy and plantar fasciitis, with a marginal relationship between moderate alcohol use and Achilles tendinopathy. Identification of potential risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries among service members could serve as the focus for future prevention and intervention efforts.

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Is Military Deployment a Risk Factor for Maternal Depression? Journal of Women's Health 2013 Jan; 22(1):9-18

Nguyen S, LeardMann CA, Smith B, Conlin AMS, Slymen DJ, Hooper TI, Ryan MAK, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study found that military women who recently gave birth and then deployed with combat experience had an increased risk for depression. Combat experience primarily increased the risk for depression, rather than childbirth itself. In addition, deployment without combat experience was not significantly associated with maternal depression among women who recently gave birth.

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