Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Newly reported respiratory symptoms and conditions among military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan: a prospective population-based study American Journal of Epidemiology 2009 Dec;170(11):1433-42

Smith B, Wong CA, Smith TC, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Elevated risk for self-reported respiratory symptoms was found among Army and Marine Corps personnel deployed in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. No increased risk for self-reported asthma, bronchitis, or emphysema was found.

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Obesity and associated adverse health outcomes among US military members: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study Obesity 2016 Jul;24(7):1582-1589

Rush T, LeardMann CA, Crum-Cianflone NF

This study examined body weight among Service members and Veterans over time (2001-2007), finding a doubling of the prevalence of obesity. Obesity rates were significantly higher among veterans, including among those recently discharged from service. The study found that military personnel, even during service time, experienced weight gain and the development of obesity. Individuals with obesity had higher rates of adverse physical, mental, and functional health, suggesting that weight control should be a DoD and national priority.

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Patterns of smoking and unhealthy alcohol use following sexual trauma among U.S. Service Members Journal of Traumatic Stress 2017 Sep; Epub ahead of print

Seelig AD, Rivera AC, Powell TM, Williams EC, Peterson AV, Littman AJ, Maynard C, Street AE, Bricker JB, Boyko EJ

Following sexual assault while serving in the military, women had double the risk for unhealthy alcohol use relapse while men had 6 times the risk for smoking relapse compared with women and men who did not experience sexual assault, respectively. No other associations between sexual trauma (assault or harassment) and subsequent smoking or unhealthy alcohol use were observed. Substance use prevention measures are recommended for those who experience sexual assault and have a history of smoking and unhealthy alcohol use.

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Post-traumatic stress disorder predicts future weight change in the Millennium Cohort Study Obesity 2015 Apr;23(4):886-92

LeardMann CA, Woodall KA, Littman AJ, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Wells TS, Crum-Cianflone NF

Data from Millennium Cohort Study participants (2001-2008), consisting of US Service members and Veterans, were used to prospectively examine the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and weight change. A significant and consistent association of PTSD with subsequent three-year weight gain and the development of obesity was found in adjusted models. Given these findings, weight gain and development of obesity should be considered important comorbidities for PTSD; existing screening and treatment programs should make sure to address these associated conditions.

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Postcards encourage participant updates Epidemiology 2009 Mar;20(2):313-4

Welch KE, LeardMann CA, Jacobson IG, Speigle SJ, Smith B, Smith TC, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

The results of this study quantify and confirm that semiannual appreciatory contact is an effective way to maintain communication with a highly mobile participant population while prompting updates of contact information.

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Posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among US military health care professionals deployed in support of the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan Journal of Traumatic Stress 2012 Dec;25(6):616-23

Jacobson IG, Horton JL, LeardMann CA, Ryan MAK, Boyko EJ, Wells TS, Smith B, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Among military personnel deployed with combat experience, health care professionals did not have increased odds for new-onset PTSD or depression over time compared to individuals in other occupations. Combat experience significantly increased the odds for new-onset PTSD or depression among deployed health care professionals, suggesting that combat experience, not features specific to being a health care professional, was the key exposure explaining development of these outcomes.

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Predeployment sleep duration and insomnia symptoms as risk factors for new-onset mental health disorders following military deployment Sleep 2013 Jul 1;36(7):1009-1018

Gehrman P, Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Ulmer CS, Smith TC

This study showed that combat-related trauma and predeployment insomnia symptoms were significantly associated with developing posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety following deployment. Assessment of insomnia symptoms predeployment may help to better identify those at highest risk for subsequent adverse mental health outcomes.

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Preinjury psychiatric status, injury severity, and postdeployment posttraumatic stress disorder Archives of General Psychiatry 2011 May;68(5):496-504

Sandweiss DA, Slymen DJ, LeardMann CA, Smith B, White MR, Boyko EJ, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Amoroso PJ, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Physical injuries were significantly associated with postdeployment PTSD. Baseline psychiatric status was also significantly associated with postdeployment PTSD, irrespective of injury severity. Deployed service members who suffer from a predeployment psychiatric condition or injury while deployed may benefit from interventions targeted to prevent postdeployment PTSD or ensure early identification and treatment.

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Prescription stimulants and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among U.S. Military Service Members Journal of Traumatic Stress 2015 Dec;28(6):585-589

Crum-Cianflone NF, Frasco M, Armenta RF, Phillips CJ, Horton J, Ryan MAK, Russell DW, LeardMann CA

Millennium Cohort data from U.S. military members who completed the baseline survey, and two follow-up surveys were evaluated to determine associations between receipt of prescription stimulants and PTSD. Prescription stimulants were significantly associated with incident PTSD after adjustment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, baseline mental and physical health status, deployment experiences, and other known confounders. Findings from this study may inform the underlying pathogenesis of and preventive strategies for PTSD.

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Prior assault and posttraumatic stress disorder after combat deployment Epidemiology 2008 May;19(3):505-12

Smith TC, Wingard DL, Ryan MAK, Kritz-Silverstein D, Slymen DJ, Sallis JF, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

In contrast to hypotheses that survival from trauma represents or confers resilience, these findings suggest vulnerability to combat stress and PTSD among survivors of prior assault.

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