Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Individual augmentee deployment and newly reported mental health morbidity Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2012 May;54(5):615-620

Granado NS, Zimmermann L, Smith B, Jones KA, Wells TS, Ryan MAK, Slymen DL, Koffman RL, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Individual augmentees (IAs), who presumably have lower social support or unit cohesion, were not at increased risk for PTSD or mental health symptoms following deployment compared with non-IA deployers. It is likely that social isolation was not highly influential among Navy IAs in this study.

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The effects of exposure to documented open-air burn pits on respiratory health among deployers of the Millennium Cohort Study Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2012 June;54(6):708-716

Smith B, Wong CA, Boyko EJ, Phillips CJ, Gackstetter GD, Ryan MAK, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Burn pit exposure within 3 or 5 miles was not associated with newly reported asthma, chronic bronchitis or emphysema, or self-reported respiratory symptoms. In general, these findings do not support an elevated risk for respiratory outcomes among personnel deployed within proximity of documented burn pits in Iraq. Increased symptom reporting, however, was observed among Air Force deployers located within 2 miles of Joint Base Balad, though this finding was marginally significant with no evidence of trend.

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Newly reported lupus and rheumatoid arthritis in relation to deployment within proximity to a documented open-air burn pit in Iraq Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2012 June;54(6):698-707

Jones KA, Smith B, Granado NS, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Ryan MAK, Phillips CJ, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined the incidence lupus and rheumatoid arthritis in relation to Army and Air Force personnel deployed within a 3- and 5-mile radius of documented open-air burn pits located in Iraq at Joint Base Balad, Camp Speicher, and Camp Taji. Overall, the results indicate no elevated risk of newly reported lupus or rheumatoid arthritis in the combined three-camp analysis. However, possible exposure at Balad was individually associated with newly reported lupus, although only two cases were at this site. Additional studies, including individual exposure data, are needed to further investigate these associations.

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Prospective assessment of chronic multisymptom illness reporting possibly associated with open-Air burn pit smoke exposure in Iraq Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2012 June;54(6):682-688

Powell TM, Smith TC, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Phillips CJ, Smith B, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

There was no increase in chronic multisymptom illness (CMI) symptom reporting in Army and Air Force personnel deployed within a 2-, 3-, or5-mile radius of documented open-air burn pits located in Iraq at Joint Base Balad, Camp Taji, and Camp Speicher compared with other deployed personnel. This initial report on possible burn pit exposure associated with CMI at apopulation-level is reassuring, but future research evaluating the potential association of burn pit smoke and CMI should utilize individual exposure data when possible.

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Changes in meeting physical activity guidelines after discharge from the military Journal of Physical Activity Health 2015 May;12(5):666-674

Littman AJ, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ, Smith TC

Using data from Millennium Cohort Study participants, we investigated changes in meeting federal Physical Activity Guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) following military discharge. MVPA declined more in those who were discharged than those who were not (-17.8 percentage points vs. -2.7 percentage points), with greater declines in former active-duty personnel, those who had deployed with combat exposures, had 14-25 years of service, and had been discharged more recently (<1 year prior). Reductions in MVPA were substantial and unexpected. Increased understanding of transitional periods that may benefit from interventions to mitigate declines in physical activity will help prevent excess weight gain and physical inactivity-associated health consequences.

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Longitudinal assessment of gender differences in the development of PTSD among US military personnel deployed in support of the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan Journal of Psychiatric Research 2015;68:30-36

Jacobson IG, Donoho CJ, Crum-Cianflone NF, Maguen S

Using prospective data from Millennium Cohort Study participants, a propensity score matching technique was used to match 1 male with each female using demographic, military, and behavioral factors including baseline sexual assault. After stratifying by combat experience and adjusting for sexual assault at follow-up, findings revealed no significant gender differences for new-onset postdeployment PTSD among men and women including among those who experienced combat.

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Prospective post-traumatic stress disorder symptom trajectories in active duty and separated military personnel Journal of Psychiatric Research 2017 Jun;89:55-64

Porter B, Bonanno GA, Frasco MA, Dursa EK, Boyko EJ

This study compared trajectories of PTSD symptoms between separated and continuously serving Active Duty participants. Trajectories among both groups were highly similar and separated into four classes: resilient, delayed-onset, improving, and elevated-recovering. Resilient trajectories (i.e., having low PTSD symptoms throughout the study period) were the most common trajectory in both groups, although they were less common among separated (82%) compared with continuously serving (87%) personnel. Interventions targeted toward individuals with delayed-onset trajectories may prevent sub-clinical PTSD from worsening.

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Examination of post-service health-related quality of life among rural and urban military members of the Millennium Cohort Study Journal of Rural Social Sciences 2011;26(3):32-56

Proctor SP, Wells TS, Jones KA, Boyko EJ, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

In this large population-based sample of young US veterans recently separated from military service, health-related quality of life (HRQL) was not significantly different among rural and urban residents in the adjusted analyses and deployment experience did not alter the association between the outcome and rural or urban residence. These results suggest that rural status is not independently associated with HRQL among recent U.S. veterans.

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Risk factors associated with suicide in current and former US military personnel Journal of the American Medical Association 2013;310(5):496-506

LeardMann CA, Powell TM, Smith TC, Bell MR, Smith B, Boyko EJ, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Ghamsary M, Hoge CW

Based on data from over 150,000 current and former service members from all service branches, 83 suicide deaths occurred in 707,493 person-years from 2001 through 2008 (11.73/100,000 person-years). Suicide risk was independently associated with depression, manic-depressive disorder, alcohol-related problems, and male gender. None of the deployment or military-related factors were associated with an increased risk for suicide. Assessing service members' prior psychiatric history as well as screening for and treating mental and substance abuse disorders may provide the best potential for mitigating suicide risk.

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Suicides Among Military Personnel Reply Journal of the American Medical Association 2013 Dec;310(23):2565-2566

Hoge CW, LeardMann CA, Boyko EJ

Discusses the complexity of suicidal behaviors and some challenges related to this type of research, while highlighting the strengths of using data from the Millennium Cohort to study suicide.

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