Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Impact of combat deployment and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on newly reported coronary heart disease among US Active Duty and Reserve forces Circulation 2014;129:1813-1820

Crum-Cianflone NF, Bagnell ME, Schaller E, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Maynard C, Ulmer CS, Vernalis M and Smith TC

This study evaluated the association of combat deployments and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on coronary heart disease among a young cohort of US service members. Experiencing combat deployment was associated with an increased odds of coronary heart disease by both self-report and medical record diagnosis after adjustment for demographic, military, and mental health characteristics. Screening positive for PTSD was not associated with CHD after adjustment. This study demonstrates that intense and acute stressful life experiences may increase the risk for coronary heart disease over a relatively short period among young adults.

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Chronic multisymptom illness: A comparison of Iraq and Afghanistan deployers with 1991 Gulf War Veterans American Journal of Epidemiology 2014;180(12):1176-1187

Smith TC, Powell TM, Jacobson IG, Smith B, Hooper TI, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD

These data highlight a difference in CMI reporting when comparing deployed to non-deployed military members. While symptom reporting in this contemporary Cohort occurred less frequently than in the historical 1991 GW cohort, increased CMI reporting was noted among deployed compared to non-deployed contemporary Cohort members.

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A longitudinal comparison of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among military service components Military Psychology 2014;26(2): 77–87

Schaller EK, Woodall KA, Lemus H, Proctor SP, Russell DW, Crum-Cianflone NF

This study investigated PTSD and depression between Reserve, National Guard and active duty continuously and dichotomously, while adjusting for deployment-related characteristics and other relevant covariates. The findings from this study suggest that Reservists and National Guardsmen do not have significantly higher mean PTSD or depression severity scores nor increased odds of screening positive for PTSD or depression compared with active-duty members over approximately 6 years of follow-up.

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US Naval and Marine Corps occupations, PTSD and depression risk and absenteeism Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health 2014;29(2):91–112

Wells TS, Bagnell ME, Miller SC, Smith TC, Gackstetter GD and Boyko EJ for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study investigated whether military occupation was associated with PTSD or depression, and if PTSD or depression was associated with lost workdays among US Navy and US Marine personnel. Navy personnel in service and supply occupations were 85% more likely to screen positive for new-onset PTSD, while those serving in health care were 58% more likely to screen positive for new-onset depression compared to other occupations. In addition, those with new-onset and persistent PTSD were twice as likely to miss one or more days of work. This suggests that early identification and management of these conditions may improve force readiness.

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Deployment experiences and motor vehicle crashes among U.S. service members American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2014;46(4):350-358.

Woodall KA, Jacobson IG, Crum-Cianflone NF

Findings indicate experiencing combat during deployment and multiple deployments are strong predictors for a motor vehicle crash (MVC) within the first six months of returning home from deployments in support of Iraq and Afghanistan among U.S. military members. These data provide critical information for targeting prevention strategies to decrease MVCs among personnel postdeployment.

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Post-traumatic stress disorder predicts future weight change in the Millennium Cohort Study Obesity 2015 Apr;23(4):886-92

LeardMann CA, Woodall KA, Littman AJ, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Wells TS, Crum-Cianflone NF

Data from Millennium Cohort Study participants (2001-2008), consisting of US Service members and Veterans, were used to prospectively examine the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and weight change. A significant and consistent association of PTSD with subsequent three-year weight gain and the development of obesity was found in adjusted models. Given these findings, weight gain and development of obesity should be considered important comorbidities for PTSD; existing screening and treatment programs should make sure to address these associated conditions.

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Recent sexual trauma and adverse health and occupational outcomes among U.S. Service women Journal of Traumatic Stress 2015 Aug;28(4):298-306

Millegan J, Schaller EK, LeardMann CA, Street AE, Williams D, Trone DW, Crum-Cianflone NF

Findings from this study indicate that recent sexual trauma is associated with potential adverse physical health, mental health, and occupational outcomes among women serving in the US armed forces, after adjustment for demographics, prior sexual trauma, mental health, and military factors. Given these findings and the increasing role of women in the military, prevention and mitigation of sexual trauma should remain a high priority and more effective strategies should be developed to prevent sexual trauma.

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Prescription stimulants and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among U.S. Military Service Members Journal of Traumatic Stress 2015 Dec;28(6):585-589

Crum-Cianflone NF, Frasco M, Armenta RF, Phillips CJ, Horton J, Ryan MAK, Russell DW, LeardMann CA

Millennium Cohort data from U.S. military members who completed the baseline survey, and two follow-up surveys were evaluated to determine associations between receipt of prescription stimulants and PTSD. Prescription stimulants were significantly associated with incident PTSD after adjustment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, baseline mental and physical health status, deployment experiences, and other known confounders. Findings from this study may inform the underlying pathogenesis of and preventive strategies for PTSD.

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Hearing loss associated with US military combat deployment Noise and Health 2015 Jan-Feb; 74(17): 34-42

Wells TS, Seelig AD, Ryan MAK, Jones JM, Hooper TI, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ

This study investigated hearing loss among Service members and Veterans. New-onset hearing loss was associated with combat deployment. Among those who had deployed, new-onset hearing loss was also associated with proximity to improvised explosive devices and experiencing a combat-related head injury. These findings have implications for health care and disability planning, as well as for prevention programs.

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A longitudinal investigation of smoking initiation and relapse among younger and older US military personnel American Journal of Public Health 2015 Jun;105(6):1220-1229

Boyko EJ, Trone DW, Peterson AV, Jacobson IG, Littman AJ, Maynard C, Seelig AD, Crum-Cianflone NF, Bricker JB

Smoking initiation and relapse were examined among current and former military Service members. Deployment with combat experience predicted higher initiation and relapse rates. Additionally, depending on the panel, prior mental health disorders, life stressors, and other military and nonmilitary characteristics independently predicted initiation and relapse.

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