Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Magnitude of Problematic Anger and its Predictors in the Millennium Cohort BMC Public Health 2020;20(1):1168

Adler AB, LeardMann CA, Roenfeldt KA, Jacobson IG, Forbes D

Among sample of service members and Veterans (N= 90,266), 17% screened positive for problematic anger. Numerous independent factors were associated with an increased risk of problematic anger (e.g., PTSD, depression, financial problems, problem drinking) and decreased risk of problem anger (e.g., positive perspective, self-mastery). Developing interventions that target problematic anger in the military is critical given its high prevalence, distinction from other mental disorders, role in impeding effective PTSD treatment, and impact on vocational and interpersonal functioning.

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Cervical Screening among U.S. Military Servicewomen in the Millennium Cohort Study, 2003–2015 Medical Surveillance Monthly Report 2020 Jul;27(7):15

Matsuno RK, Porter B, Warner SG, Wells N for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Across a 13 year period (2003-2015), the percentage of U.S. service women who were up-to-date with cervical cancer screening peaked in 2010, then declined. Screening was generally highest among Air Force personnel and lowest among Navy personnel. Being up-to-date was higher for servicewomen who had initiated the HPV vaccine than for women who had not.

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Mental Health, Physical Health, and Health-Related Behaviors of U.S. Army Special Forces PLOS One 2020 Jun 3;15(6):e023356

Cooper AD, Warner SG, Rivera AC, Rull RP, Adler AB, Faix DJ, Neff RR, Deagle EA, Caserta RJ, LeardMann CA, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Using prospective data, Army Special Forces personnel and Ranger Qualified infantrymen reported fewer mental health problems, multiple somatic symptoms, and unhealthy behaviors than General Purpose Forces infantrymen. Findings indicate that the adoption of healthy behaviors, such as adequate sleep and physical activity, may be an efficient and cost-effective approach for preventing adverse health outcomes, regardless of occupational specialization or prior health status.

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Smoking Among U.S. Service Members Following Transition From Military to Veteran Status Health Promotion Practice 2020 Jan;21(1_suppl):165S-175S

Nieh C, Powell TM, Gackstetter GD, Hooper TI

This study examined whether the time period just prior to military separation or the reasons for separation were associated with smoking among veterans. We found that service members are more likely to smoke when closer to their military separation date. The smoking prevalence among service members separating within 3 months was 23%, whereas 17% was observed among those separating in 2+ years. We also found that veterans who were heavy drinkers were 50% more likely to smoke and those with a standards/judicial-related separation reason were 69% more likely to smoke.

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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Risk of Selected Autoimmune Diseases among US Military Personnel BMC Psychiatry 2020 Jan 15; 20 (1):23

Bookwalter DB, Roenfeldt KA, LeardMann CA, Kong SY, Riddle MS,Rull RP

This study investigated the association between PTSD and risk of developing selected autoimmune diseases among US active duty service members. Among 120,572 participants followed for an average of 5 years, risk of any of the selected new-onset autoimmune diseases was 58% higher for those with a history of PTSD compared to those with no history. Observed associations did not differ by specific types of trauma experienced. Future research is needed to understand the physiological pathways that may link PTSD with increased risk of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

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Prevalence of Chronic Multisymptom Illness/Gulf War Illness Over Time Among Millennium Cohort Participants, 2001 to 2016 Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2020 Jan;62(1):4-10

Porter B, Long K, Rull RP, Dursa EK for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Chronic multisymptom illness/Gulf War illness (CMI/GWI) is a signature illness of the 1990-1991 Gulf War. Using a modified CMI/GWI definition, this study estimated the prevalence of CMI/GWI from 2001-2016 among Gulf War veterans and two other non-deployed groups enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study. Overall, Gulf War veterans had the highest prevalence of CMI/GWI across the study period. The prevalence among all three groups increased substantially at approximately the same rate from 2001 to 2016.

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Longitudinal Trajectories of Comorbid PTSD and Depression Symptoms Among U.S. Service Members and Veterans BMC Psychiatry 2019 Dec 13;19(1):396

Armenta RF, Walter KH, Geronimo-Hara TR, Porter B, Stander V, LeardMann CA, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined the patterns of PTSD and depression symptoms over time among those with probable comorbid PTSD and depression at baseline. We found that PTSD and depression symptoms tended to move in tandem. Although many service members and veterans experienced a reduction of symptoms over time, one quarter of individuals reported high levels of PTSD and depression symptoms during the almost 12 years of follow-up. Notable factors associated with elevated comorbid PTSD/depression symptoms included older age, combat experiences, and having other co-occurring health problems. Results highlight the need for comprehensive assessment and treatment of comorbid PTSD/depression.

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Healthy Behaviors and Incidence of Overweight and Obesity in Military Veterans Annals of Epidemiology 2019;39:26–32.e1

Bookwalter DB, Porter B, Jacobson IG, Kong SY, Littman AJ, Rull RP, Boyko EJ

This study looked at how several healthy behaviors of veterans (including moderate-to-high physical activity, low sedentary time, eating little fast-food, appropriate nightly sleep duration, non-smoking, and moderate alcohol use) were associated with weight changes. Veterans who reported more healthy behaviors were less likely to become overweight and/or obese. For example, if all veterans of a healthy weight followed all six healthy behaviors, the number of veterans becoming overweight is estimated to go down by 23% and the number of veterans becoming obese is estimated to go down by 68%.

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Combat and Trajectories of Physical Health Functioning in U.S. Service Members American Journal of Preventative Medicine 2019 Nov;57(5):637-644

Porter B, Bonanno GA, Bliese PD, Phillips CJ, Proctor SP for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Combat is detrimental to long-term physical health functioning among deployed service members, but other pre-deployment modifiable factors like body size and smoking status had stronger associations with subsequent trajectories. This indicates the negative impact of combat may be mitigated through pre-deployment healthy behaviors.

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Comparing Self-Reported Physical Activity and Sedentary Time to Objective Fitness Measures in a Military Cohort Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 2019 Jan;22(1):59-64

de la Motte SJ, Welsh MM, Castle V, Burnett D, Gackstetter GD, Littman AJ, Boyko EJ, and Hooper TI

This was a cross-sectional study of 10,105 Air Force Millennium Cohort participants who completed a physical fitness assessment (PFA) in 2007-2008. Linear regression was used to relate objective PFA measures to self-reported physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior, and logistic regression was used to examine the risk of PFA failure associated with these self-reported measures. After controlling for demographic characteristics, BMI, and smoking status, we found self-reported PA and screen time were associated with some objective PFA measures, including VO2Max and abdominal circumference. However, screen time alone was associated with odds of PFA failure.

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