Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Three-Item Dimensions of Anger Reactions Scale JAMA Network Open 2024 Feb 5;7(2):e2354741

Forbes D, LeardMann CA, Lawrence-Wood E, Villalobos J, Madden K, Gutierrez IA, Cowlishaw S, Baur J, Adler AB

Given the prevalence of problematic anger and its association with adverse outcomes, it is vital to develop a very brief measure that can be easily included in research and clinical contexts. Using data from two large military samples with current and former service members in Australia and the US, this study reported on a newly developed 3-item Dimensions of Anger Reactions (DAR-3) scale. The DAR-3 assesses anger intensity, frequency, and duration. Results were consistent across the samples in terms of the scale’s reliability, validity, and cut-off score. The DAR-3 has practical utility for military and veteran populations.

View abstract

Racial, Ethnic, and Sex Disparities in Mental Health Among U.S. Service Members and Veterans: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study American Journal of Epidemiology 2023 Nov 15; kwad221 | doi: 10.1093/aje/kwad221

Sharifian N, Kolaja CA, LeardMann CA, Castañeda SF, Carey FR, Seay JS, Carlton KN, Rull RP, Millennium Cohort Study Team

Racial, ethnic, and sex disparities in mental health among service members and veterans persist, even after accounting for sociodemographic, military, health-related and social support factors. Despite increased availability to care among military populations, culturally relevant and targeted outreach are still needed to address these disparities.

View full text

Individual and Military Factors That Modify the Association Between Recent Sexual Trauma and Health Outcomes Among U.S. Service Members and Veterans Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2023 Sep; 38(17-18):10150-10181 | doi: 10.1177/08862605231173909

Seelig AD, Rivera AC, LeardMann CA, Daniel SM, Jacobson IG, Stander VA, Moore BL, Millard DC, Boyko EJ; Millennium Cohort Team

Experiencing recent sexual trauma was associated with PTSD, depression, and multiple somatic symptoms (e.g. physical complaints, bodily distress). These associations remained relatively stable across demographic and military factors but varied in the presence of protective (e.g., social support) and risk factors (e.g., childhood trauma). These findings underscore the complex interplay of trauma and resilience in understanding adverse health outcomes.

View full text

Survey response over 15 years of follow-up in the Millennium Cohort Study BMC Medical Research Methodology 2023 Sep 9; 23(1):205 | doi: 10.1186/s12874-023-02018-z

Kolaja CA, Belding JN, Boparai SK, Castañeda SF, Geronimo-Hara TR, Powell TM, Tu XM, Walstrom JL, Sheppard BD, Rull RP; Millennium Cohort Study Team

Across a 3-15 year follow-up period, the average response rate among almost 198,833 Millennium Cohort Study participants was 60%. Factors associated with follow-up survey response over time included increased educational attainment, married status, female sex, older age, military deployment, greater life stress, and poorer mental/physical health status.

View full text

Cohort Profile Update: The US Millennium Cohort Study—evaluating the impact of military experiences on service members and veteran health International Journal of Epidemiology 2023 Aug 2; 52(4):e222-e231 | doi: 10.1093/ije/dyad088

Castañeda SF, Belding JN, Kolaja CA, LeardMann CA, Jacobson IG, Rivera AC, Carey FR, Boparai S, Walstrom JL, Sheppard BD, Boyko EJ, Ryan MAK, Rull RP

This paper provides an update to the original cohort profile paper published a decade ago. The Study includes 260,228 military personnel enrolled across 5 panels between 2001 and 2021 (baseline age range: 25-35 years), where participants are surveyed every 3-5 years through 2068. Longitudinal survey data are linked to administrative and medical data from DoD, VA, and external sources. The breadth of research topics has expanded over the past decade with the continued aim of contributing to policies and programs that improve service member and Veteran health and wellbeing.

View full text

Lifetime Traumatic Brain Injury and Risk of Post-Concussive Symptoms in the Millennium Cohort Study Journal of Neurotrauma 2023 Jun 26 | doi: 10.1089/neu.2022.0213. Online ahead of print.

Jannace K, Pompeii L, Gimeno Ruiz de Porras D, Perkison WB, Yamal JM, Trone DW, Rull RP

TBI was associated with greater risk of post-concussive symptoms (e.g., fatigue, poor concentration, memory loss) among active-duty service members with risk being greater as number of lifetime TBIs increased.

View

Single and repeated high-level blast, low-level blast, and new-onset self-reported health conditions in the U.S. Millennium Cohort Study: An exploratory investigation Frontiers in Neurology 2023 Mar 21; 14:1110717 | doi: 10.3389/fneur.20

Belding JN, Kolaja CA, Rull RP, Trone DW for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined whether single and repeated high-level blast exposure (e.g., from incoming munitions) and low-level blast exposure (e.g., from outgoing munitions) were associated with 45 different self-reported diagnoses of illness and injury. Outcomes examined included PTSD, depression, hearing loss, tinnitus, chronic fatigue syndrome, and migraines. Findings suggest that blast exposure elevated risks for more than 20 different diagnoses and that repeated exposure was associated with worse outcomes.

View full text

Pre-incentive Efficacy in Survey Response Rates in a Large Prospective Military Cohort Field Methods 2023 Mar 17; 35(4), 392-408 | doi: 10.1177/1525822X231163668

Powell TM, Geronimo-Hara TR, Tobin LE, Donoho CJ, Sheppard BD, Walstrom JL, Rull RP, Faix DJ

U.S. military and veteran populations are challenging to retain in longitudinal studies as they span the globe, frequently move, and are heavily surveyed. This study tested the effectiveness of multiple pre-incentives ($2 bill, $5 gift card, magnet, and Apple iPad® lottery entry) on increasing the response rate to the 2014 survey of the Millennium Cohort Study. Findings suggest that providing participants a monetary pre-incentive was an effective way to increase response rates and participant retention as well as re-engage participants who did not respond to a previous follow-up survey.

View abstract

Identifying at-risk marines: A person-centered approach to adverse childhood experiences, mental health, and social support Journal of Affective Disorders 2023 Mar 15; 325:721-731 | doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2023.01.020

Reed-Fitzke K, LeardMann CA, Wojciak AS, Ferraro AJ, Hamilton A, Duncan JM, Rull RP

In a sample of male Marines (n=3,881), five subgroups based on adverse childhood experiences were identified. One in five Marines reported moderate to elevated levels of childhood adversity. A history of varying types of childhood adversity characterized by parental absence was associated with greater PTSD and depression symptomology and lower levels of social support. When attempting to identify Marines most at-risk for mental health concerns, the identification of specific patterns of childhood adversity, particularly regarding parental absence, may be more valuable.

View full text

Contribution of Post-Trauma Insomnia to Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women Service Members: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study Sleep 2023 Mar 9; 46(3):zsac313 | doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsac313

Carlson GC, Sharifian N, Jacobson IG, LeardMann CA, Rull RP, Martin JL

Post-trauma insomnia contributed to the development of depression and PTSD among women service members and veterans; screening for insomnia may help mitigate the development of posttraumatic mental health conditions.

View full text

The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the Department of Defense of non-U.S. Government sites or the information, products, or services contained therein. Although the Department of Defense may or may not use these sites as additional distribution channels for Department of Defense information, it does not exercise editorial control over all of the information that you may find at these locations. Such links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this website.

Publication badge scores are provided by Altmetric.