Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
New-Onset Asthma and Combat Deployment: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study American Journal of Epidemiology In Press

Rivera AC, Powell TM, Boyko EJ, Lee RU, Faix DJ, Luxton DD, and Rull RP

New-onset asthma developed in 2.7% of men and 4.6% of women during the follow-up period, among participants without a prior diagnosis of asthma at baseline. Compared with those who did not deploy, those who deployed with combat experience were 24-30% more likely to develop asthma, even after controlling for smoking status and other covariates. No elevated risk was observed for deployers who did not experience combat. Additional risk factors for asthma among both men and women included Hispanic ethnicity, overweight or obesity, Army service, stressful life events, PTSD, and health care or other technical occupations.

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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Association With Subsequent Risky and Problem Drinking Initiation Journal of Addiction Medicine In Press

Bensley KM, Seelig AD, Armenta RF, Rivera AC, Peterson AV, Jacobson IG, Littman AJ, Maynard C, Bricker JB, Boyko EJ, Rull RP, and Williams EC

This study investigated the association between PTSD symptoms and symptom clusters and the initiation of risky and problem drinking. One PTSD symptom (irritability/anger) was associated with a higher risk of risky drinking initiation. Five PTSD symptoms (restricted affect, sense of foreshortened future, exaggerated startle response, sleep disturbance, and irritability/anger) and two symptom clusters (dysphoric arousal and emotional numbing) were associated with an increased risk of problem drinking initiation.
Longitudinal Examination of the Influence of Individual Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Clusters of Symptoms on the Initiation of Cigarette Smoking Journal of Addiction Medicine In Press

Seelig AD, Bensley KM, Williams EC, Armenta RF, Rivera AC, Peterson AV, Jacobson IG, Littman AJ, Maynard C, Bricker JB, Rull RP, Boyko EJ

for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined the risk for smoking initiation by each of the 17 PTSD symptoms that characterize the disorder. No significant associations between specific PTSD symptoms and subsequent smoking initiation were observed in this study population. Among the subsample who screened positive for PTSD, "feeling irritable or having angry outbursts" and "feeling as though your future will somehow be cut short" were associated with a higher risk of subsequent smoking initiation.
Health Status of Gulf War and Era Veterans Serving in the US Military in 2000 Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine In Press

Porter B, Long K, Rull RP, Dursa EK

This paper describes Gulf War Veterans and non-deployed Gulf era personnel enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study. Comparing distributions of survey responses with those from a population-based sample collected by the VA, we found that Millennium Cohort participants reported slightly better health, particularly regarding mental health. The Millennium Cohort Study is an important resource for investigating the health effects of Gulf War deployment.
Measuring Aggregated and Specific Combat Exposures: Associations with Posttraumatic Stress Disorders, Depression, and Alcohol-Related Problems Journal of Traumatic Stress In Press

Porter B, Hoge CH, Tobin LE, Donoho CJ, Castro CA, Luxton DD, Faix DJ

This study compared two measures of combat exposure and showed that both measures were similarly predictive of poor mental health. The unique contributions of specific exposures to poor mental health were also examined. While all combat exposure items were related to poor mental health, relatively stronger independent associations were observed for certain exposures (e.g., witnessing instances of physical abuse).
Factors Associated With Persistent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among U.S. Military Service Members and Veterans BMC Psychiatry 2018 Feb 17;18(1):48

Armenta RF, Rush T, LeardMann CA, Millegan J, Cooper AD, Hoge, CW

Among service members and veterans who screened positive for PTSD at baseline, 47% met the criteria for persistent PTSD. Combat experiences and PTSD severity were found to be the most salient factors associated with persistent PTSD; other associated factors included co-morbid conditions, sleep problems, and somatic symptoms. These findings corroborate the need for more comprehensive and accessible treatment to address both PTSD symptoms and comorbid conditions.

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A Decade of War: Prospective Trajectories of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among Deployed US Military Personnel and the Influence of Combat Exposure American Journal of Epidemiology 15 December 2017;186(12):1310–1318.

Donoho CJ, Bonanno GA, Porter B, Kearney L, Powell TM

Using survey data collected at four different time points over a 10-year study period, four distinct patterns of PTSD symptoms were observed among deployed personnel. More than 85% of participants were found to be resilient with almost no PTSD symptoms. Despite similarity in pre-deployment symptoms, those experiencing combat-related trauma had higher PTSD symptom levels following deployment across every trajectory compared with those not exposed to combat-related trauma. These findings suggest the clinical course of PTSD symptoms has a heterogeneous pattern of development, but that combat exposure is uniformly associated with poorer mental health.

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Patterns of Smoking and Unhealthy Alcohol Use Following Sexual Trauma Among US Service Members Journal of Traumatic Stress 2017 Sep; Epub ahead of print

Seelig AD, Rivera AC, Powell TM, Williams EC, Peterson AV, Littman AJ, Maynard C, Street AE, Bricker JB, Boyko EJ

Following sexual assault while serving in the military, women had double the risk for unhealthy alcohol use relapse while men had 6 times the risk for smoking relapse compared with women and men who did not experience sexual assault, respectively. No other associations between sexual trauma (assault or harassment) and subsequent smoking or unhealthy alcohol use were observed. Substance use prevention measures are recommended for those who experience sexual assault and have a history of smoking and unhealthy alcohol use.

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Prospective Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Trajectories in Active Duty and Separated Military Personnel Journal of Psychiatric Research 2017 Jun;89:55-64

Porter B, Bonanno GA, Frasco MA, Dursa EK, Boyko EJ

This study compared trajectories of PTSD symptoms between separated and continuously serving Active Duty participants. Trajectories among both groups were highly similar and separated into four classes: resilient, delayed-onset, improving, and elevated-recovering. Resilient trajectories (i.e., having low PTSD symptoms throughout the study period) were the most common trajectory in both groups, although they were less common among separated (82%) compared with continuously serving (87%) personnel. Interventions targeted toward individuals with delayed-onset trajectories may prevent sub-clinical PTSD from worsening.

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Evaluation of a Modified Version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory-Short Form BMC Research Methodology 2017 Apr;17(1):69

Kaur N, Porter B, LeardMann CA, Tobin TE, Lemus H, Luxton DD

This study sought to validate a modified measure of posttraumatic growth, personal growth, and change that may occur following trauma. Results indicate that this modified measure may be used to assess well-being at one time point or growth over two time points. Furthermore, the two items assessing spirituality had a strong relationship with each other and may be used alone in future studies.

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