Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
The Millennium Cohort Study: A 21-year prospective cohort study of 140,000 military personnel Military Medicine 2002 Jun;167(6):483-8.

Gray GC, Chesbrough KB, Ryan MAK, Amoroso P, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Hooper TI, Riddle JR, for the Millennium Cohort Study Group

The origins and development of the Millennium Cohort Study are described. The largest prospective study in military history was established to answer the most difficult questions about long-term health after military service.

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Linking exposures and health outcomes to a large population-based longitudinal study: the Millennium Cohort Study Military Medicine 2011 Jul;176(7 Suppl):56-63

Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Linking Millennium Cohort prospective data to individual-level exposure data is critical for understanding and quantifying any long-term health outcomes potentially associated with unique military occupational exposures.

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A longitudinal comparison of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among military service components Military Psychology 2014;26(2): 77–87

Schaller EK, Woodall KA, Lemus H, Proctor SP, Russell DW, Crum-Cianflone NF

This study investigated PTSD and depression between Reserve, National Guard and active duty continuously and dichotomously, while adjusting for deployment-related characteristics and other relevant covariates. The findings from this study suggest that Reservists and National Guardsmen do not have significantly higher mean PTSD or depression severity scores nor increased odds of screening positive for PTSD or depression compared with active-duty members over approximately 6 years of follow-up.

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Hearing loss associated with US military combat deployment Noise and Health 2015 Jan-Feb; 74(17): 34-42

Wells TS, Seelig AD, Ryan MAK, Jones JM, Hooper TI, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ

This study investigated hearing loss among Service members and Veterans. New-onset hearing loss was associated with combat deployment. Among those who had deployed, new-onset hearing loss was also associated with proximity to improvised explosive devices and experiencing a combat-related head injury. These findings have implications for health care and disability planning, as well as for prevention programs.

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Post-traumatic stress disorder predicts future weight change in the Millennium Cohort Study Obesity 2015 Apr;23(4):886-92

LeardMann CA, Woodall KA, Littman AJ, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Wells TS, Crum-Cianflone NF

Data from Millennium Cohort Study participants (2001-2008), consisting of US Service members and Veterans, were used to prospectively examine the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and weight change. A significant and consistent association of PTSD with subsequent three-year weight gain and the development of obesity was found in adjusted models. Given these findings, weight gain and development of obesity should be considered important comorbidities for PTSD; existing screening and treatment programs should make sure to address these associated conditions.

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Obesity and associated adverse health outcomes among US military members: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study Obesity 2016 Jul;24(7):1582-1589

Rush T, LeardMann CA, Crum-Cianflone NF

This study examined body weight among Service members and Veterans over time (2001-2007), finding a doubling of the prevalence of obesity. Obesity rates were significantly higher among veterans, including among those recently discharged from service. The study found that military personnel, even during service time, experienced weight gain and the development of obesity. Individuals with obesity had higher rates of adverse physical, mental, and functional health, suggesting that weight control should be a DoD and national priority.

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The impact of prior deployment experience on civilian employment after military service Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2013; 70: 408-417

Horton JL, Jacobson IG, Wong CA, Wells TS, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Ryan MA, and Smith TC

Employment after military service, in particular after stressful deployment experiences, is a concern for many veterans and policymakers. Among this large cohort of veterans, we found that prior deployment and PTSD were not significantly associated with job status post-service; in contrast, depression, panic/anxiety disorder, and poor physical health increased the risk of unemployment among certain groups. These findings may guide policy for veterans most in need of post-military employment support.

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Early mortality experience in a large military cohort and a comparison of data sources used for mortality ascertainment Population Health Metrics 2010 May;8(1):15

Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, LeardMann CA, Boyko EJ, Pearse LA, Smith B, Amoroso PA, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study assessed the ability of four different mortality data sources to document the early mortality experience of the Cohort. The strengths and limitations of each data source are described and support continued use of multiple sources for future mortality assessment.

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PTSD prevalence, associated exposures, and functional health outcomes in a large, population-based military cohort Public Health Report 2009 Jan;124:90-102

Smith TC, Wingard DL, Ryan MAK, Kritz-Silverstein D, Slymen DJ, Sallis JF, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Findings suggest a 2% prevalence of current PTSD symptoms in the US Military that are associated with increased reporting of exposures and decrements in functional health.

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Prospectively assessed posttraumatic stress disorder and associated physical activity Public Health Reports 2011 May/Jun;126(3):371-83

LeardMann CA, Kelton ML, Smith B, Littman AJ, Boyko EJ, Wells TS, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Nearly 90% of the Cohort participate in some level of physical activity. Engagement in physical activity, specifically vigorous activity, was associated with decreased odds of PTSD symptoms. While further research is needed, a physical activity component may be valuable to treat and/or prevent PTSD among service members.

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