Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
The effect of combat exposure on veteran homelessness Journal of Housing Economics Information 49,101711

Ackerman A, Porter B, Sullivan R

Homelessness is a serious problem among veterans, but how military service contributes to the risk of homelessness is unclear. This study examined the impact of witnessing another's death (a proxy for combat) on likelihood of reporting homelessness. One exposure was associated with a 0.6% increase in homelessness. Extrapolated to the overall population, combat exposure is expected to contribute to 4,600 instances of homeless veterans.

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Combat Experience, New-Onset Mental Health Conditions, and Posttraumatic Growth in U.S. Service Members Psychiatry In press

Jacobson IG, Adler AB, Roenfeldt KA, Porter,B., LeardMann CA, Rull RP, Hoge CW

Research on posttraumatic growth (PTG) after traumatic experiences has raised questions on measurement, validity, and clinical utility. We longitudinally examined PTG among Millennium Cohort Study deployers (n=8,732), who screened negative for PTSD and depression at time 1, using a measure that improved upon previous psychometric issues. A strong inverse correlation was found between PTG scores at time 2 and new onset mental health problems (PTSD, depression), where lower growth scores correlated with worse mental health (i.e. higher PTSD or depression screening scores). Only 5% of participants who screened positive for a mental health problem at time 2 experienced positive growth. Results suggest that measurement of PTG is not independent from mental health problems following combat experiences and thus challenge the clinical utility of the PTG construct.

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Longitudinal associations of military-related factors on self-reported sleep among U.S. service members Sleep In press

Cooper AD, Kolaja CA, Markwald RR, Jacobson IG, Chinoy ED

This study examined military factors in relation to the development and reoccurrence of short sleep duration (≤5 hours or 6 hours) and insomnia symptoms (i.e., trouble falling asleep or staying asleep in the past month)over a 3-15 year follow-up period. Military factors consistently associated with an increased risk for development and/or reoccurrence of short sleep duration and insomnia symptoms included active duty service, Army or Marine Corps service, combat deployment, and longer than average deployment lengths. Officers and noncombat deployers had decreased risk for either poor sleep characteristic. Length of service and separation from the military were complex factors; each lowered risk for ≤5 hours sleep but increased risk for insomnia symptoms. Findings suggest that efforts to improve sleep prioritization and implement interventions targeting at-risk military populations, behaviors, and other significant factors are warranted.

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A Comparison of the PRIME-MD PHQ-9 and PHQ-8 in a Large Military Prospective Study, The Millennium Cohort Study Journal of Affective Disorders May 2013; 148(1): 77-83

Wells TS, Horton JL, LeardMann CA, Jacobson IG, and Boyko EJ

The PHQ-9 is a validated tool for depression screening, however recently an abbreviated version (PHQ-8) is increasingly being used in survey research that excludes the last and most sensitive item. This study compared the performance of the PHQ-8 with the PHQ-9 in a large, population-based sample of current and former military service members. Excellent agreement was detected between the two instruments, suggesting that the PHQ-8 performs well when screening for depression in similar populations.

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Longitudinal Examination of the Influence of Individual Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Clusters of Symptoms on the Initiation of Cigarette Smoking Journal of Addiction Medicine Sep/Oct;12(5):363-372

Seelig AD, Bensley KM, Williams EC, Armenta RF, Rivera AC, Peterson AV, Jacobson IG, Littman AJ, Maynard C, Bricker JB, Rull RP, Boyko EJ for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined the risk for smoking initiation by each of the 17 PTSD symptoms that characterize the disorder. No significant associations between specific PTSD symptoms and subsequent smoking initiation were observed in this study population. Among the subsample who screened positive for PTSD, "feeling irritable or having angry outbursts" and "feeling as though your future will somehow be cut short" were associated with a higher risk of subsequent smoking initiation.

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