Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Single and repeated high-level blast, low-level blast, and new-onset self-reported health conditions in the U.S. Millennium Cohort Study: An exploratory investigation Frontiers in Neurology 2023 Mar 21 | doi: 10.3389/fneur.20

Belding JN, Kolaja CA, Rull RP, Trone DW for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined whether single and repeated high-level blast exposure (e.g., from incoming munitions) and low-level blast exposure (e.g., from outgoing munitions) were associated with 45 different self-reported diagnoses of illness and injury. Outcomes examined included PTSD, depression, hearing loss, tinnitus, chronic fatigue syndrome, and migraines. Findings suggest that blast exposure elevated risks for more than 20 different diagnoses and that repeated exposure was associated with worse outcomes.

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Sleep and Health Resilience Metrics in a Large Military Cohort Sleep 2016 May;39(5):1111-1120

Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Donoho CJ, Trone DW, Crum-Cianflone NF, Balkin TJ

The presence of insomnia symptoms was significantly associated with worse self-rated health, more lost work days, lower odds of deployment, higher odds of leaving military service early, and more health care utilization, after adjustment for demographic, military, behavioral and other health covariates. Findings were similar for those reporting less than 6 hours of sleep per night. Future research should focus on the efficacy of interventions to promote healthy sleep in military populations.

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Sleep Characteristics, Mental Health, and Diabetes Risk: A Prospective Study of US Military Service Members in the Millennium Cohort Study Diabetes Care 2013 Oct;36(10):3154-61

Boyko EJ, Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Hooper TI, Smith B, Smith TC, Crum-Cianflone NF

We investigated whether poor sleep and mental health symptoms were independently related to diabetes risk. During 6 years of follow-up, the annual incidence rate for type 2 diabetes was 3.6/1,000 person years. After adjusting for covariates including mental health disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, both trouble sleeping and sleep apnea significantly predicted diabetes risk independent of these mental health conditions and other diabetes risk factors.

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Sleep Health Among US Navy Afloat Versus Ashore Personnel in the Millennium Cohort Study Journal of Sleep Research 2024 May 19 | doi:10.1111/jsr.14207 | Online ahead of print

Jacobson IG, Harbertson J, Sharifian N, Rull RP, Steele CT, Russell DW

Among 4,953 active-duty naval personnel who completed the 2014-2016 Millennium Cohort survey, sleep metrics (e.g., fatigue, short sleep duration) and sleep-related health outcomes (e.g., PTSD, depression) were similar between sailors with recent sea and shore duty, while sailors with recent shore duty had poorer physical health (e.g., type 2 diabetes, bodily pain) compared with those with recent sea duty.

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Sleep Patterns Before, During, and After Deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan Sleep 2010 Dec;33(12):1615-22

Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Smith B, Hooper TI, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Gehrman PR, Macera CA, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Participants reported having trouble sleeping and getting less sleep either during deployment or after returning home from deployment more than nondeployed participants. Self-reported combat exposures and mental health symptoms were independently associated with increased reporting of trouble sleeping.

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Smallpox Vaccination: Comparison of Self-Reported and Electronic Vaccine Records in the Millennium Cohort Study Human Vaccines 2007 Nov/Dec;3(6):245-51

LeardMann CA, Smith B, Smith TC, Wells TS, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Self-report of smallpox vaccination is very reliable. Results may be valuable in supporting global response to bioterrorism threats.

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Smokeless Tobacco Use Related to Military Deployment, Cigarettes, and Mental Health Symptoms in a Large, Prospective Cohort Study Among US Service Members Addiction 2012 May;107(5):983-994

Hermes ED, Wells TS, Smith B, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Miller SC, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Chronic use of smokeless tobacco has been linked to poor military training performance, early discharge, and a host of medical problems from cancer to heart disease. Smokeless tobacco initiation occurred in 1.9% and persistent use in 8.9% of Millennium Cohort participants. The study showed that deployment, combat exposure, smoking, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder increased the risk for smokeless tobacco initiation, while deployment and combat exposure increased the risk for persistent use.

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Smoking Among U.S. Service Members Following Transition From Military to Veteran Status Health Promotion Practice 2020 Jan;21(1_suppl):165S-175S

Nieh C, Powell TM, Gackstetter GD, Hooper TI

This study examined whether the time period just prior to military separation or the reasons for separation were associated with smoking among veterans. We found that service members are more likely to smoke when closer to their military separation date. The smoking prevalence among service members separating within 3 months was 23%, whereas 17% was observed among those separating in 2+ years. We also found that veterans who were heavy drinkers were 50% more likely to smoke and those with a standards/judicial-related separation reason were 69% more likely to smoke.

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Suicides Among Military Personnel Reply Journal of the American Medical Association 2013 Dec;310(23):2565-2566

Hoge CW, LeardMann CA, Boyko EJ

Discusses the complexity of suicidal behaviors and some challenges related to this type of research, while highlighting the strengths of using data from the Millennium Cohort to study suicide.

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Surveillance Snapshot: Cervical Screening among U.S. Military Servicewomen in the Millennium Cohort Study, 2003–2015 Medical Surveillance Monthly Report 2020 Jul;27(7):15

Matsuno RK, Porter B, Warner SG, Wells N for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Across a 13 year period (2003-2015), the percentage of U.S. service women who were up-to-date with cervical cancer screening peaked in 2010, then declined. Screening was generally highest among Air Force personnel and lowest among Navy personnel. Being up-to-date was higher for servicewomen who had initiated the HPV vaccine than for women who had not.

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