The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Contribution of Post-Trauma Insomnia to Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women Service Members: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study Sleep 2023 Mar 9; 46(3):zsac313 | doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsac313

Carlson GC, Sharifian N, Jacobson IG, LeardMann CA, Rull RP, Martin JL

Post-trauma insomnia contributed to the development of depression and PTSD among women service members and veterans; screening for insomnia may help mitigate the development of posttraumatic mental health conditions.

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Risk and Protective Factors for Cancer Mortality Among United States Service Members and Veterans (2001-2018) Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2023 May 1; 32(5):606-616 | doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-22-0943

Sharifian N, Carey FR, Seay JS, Castaneda SF, Boyko EJ, Rull RP

This longitudinal study used data from the Millennium Cohort Study (2001-2018) to examine risk and protective factors for cancer mortality among service members and veterans . Compared with those who deployed without combat experiences, non-deployers were more likely to die from cancer, consistent with the healthy deployer effect.

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Survey response over 15 years of follow-up in the Millennium Cohort Study BMC Medical Research Methodology 2023 Sep 9; 23(1):205 | doi: 10.1186/s12874-023-02018-z

Kolaja CA, Belding JN, Boparai SK, Castañeda SF, Geronimo-Hara TR, Powell TM, Tu XM, Walstrom JL, Sheppard BD, Rull RP; Millennium Cohort Study Team

Across a 3-15 year follow-up period, the average response rate among almost 198,833 Millennium Cohort Study participants was 60%. Factors associated with follow-up survey response over time included increased educational attainment, married status, female sex, older age, military deployment, greater life stress, and poorer mental/physical health status.

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Individual and Military Factors That Modify the Association Between Recent Sexual Trauma and Health Outcomes Among U.S. Service Members and Veterans Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2023 Sep; 38(17-18):10150-10181 | doi: 10.1177/08862605231173909

Seelig AD, Rivera AC, LeardMann CA, Daniel SM, Jacobson IG, Stander VA, Moore BL, Millard DC, Boyko EJ; Millennium Cohort Team

Experiencing recent sexual trauma was associated with PTSD, depression, and multiple somatic symptoms (e.g. physical complaints, bodily distress). These associations remained relatively stable across demographic and military factors but varied in the presence of protective (e.g., social support) and risk factors (e.g., childhood trauma). These findings underscore the complex interplay of trauma and resilience in understanding adverse health outcomes.

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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Veteran Health Administration, Use and Care Seeking Among Post 9/11 U.S. Veterans Journal of Traumatic Stress 2024 Feb 29 | doi: 10.1002/jts.23019 | Online ahead of print

Porter B, Dozier ME, Seelig A, Zhu Y, Patoilo M, Boyko EJ, Rull RP

Veterans with probable PTSD were more likely to use Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services than veterans without probable PTSD. Among these veterans with probable PTSD, those with recent VHA use were more likely to have reported seeking care for PTSD compared to those who did not use VHA services in the past year.

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Racial, Ethnic, and Sex Disparities in Mental Health Among U.S. Service Members and Veterans: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study American Journal of Epidemiology 2024 Feb 5;193(3):500-515 | doi: 10.1093/aje/kwad221

Sharifian N, Kolaja CA, LeardMann CA, Castañeda SF, Carey FR, Seay JS, Carlton KN, Rull RP, Millennium Cohort Study Team

Racial, ethnic, and sex disparities in mental health among service members and veterans persist, even after accounting for sociodemographic, military, health-related and social support factors. Despite increased availability to care among military populations, culturally relevant and targeted outreach are still needed to address these disparities.

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Three-Item Dimensions of Anger Reactions Scale JAMA Network Open 2024 Feb 5;7(2):e2354741

Forbes D, LeardMann CA, Lawrence-Wood E, Villalobos J, Madden K, Gutierrez IA, Cowlishaw S, Baur J, Adler AB

Given the prevalence of problematic anger and its association with adverse outcomes, it is vital to develop a very brief measure that can be easily included in research and clinical contexts. Using data from two large military samples with current and former service members in Australia and the US, this study reported on a newly developed 3-item Dimensions of Anger Reactions (DAR-3) scale. The DAR-3 assesses anger intensity, frequency, and duration. Results were consistent across the samples in terms of the scale’s reliability, validity, and cut-off score. The DAR-3 has practical utility for military and veteran populations.

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Combat Experience, New-Onset Mental Health Conditions, and Posttraumatic Growth in U.S. Service Members Psychiatry Fall 2021;84(3):276-290

Jacobson IG, Adler AB, Roenfeldt KA, Porter,B., LeardMann CA, Rull RP, Hoge CW

Research on posttraumatic growth (PTG) after traumatic experiences has raised questions on measurement, validity, and clinical utility. We longitudinally examined PTG among Millennium Cohort Study deployers (n=8,732), who screened negative for PTSD and depression at time 1, using a measure that improved upon previous psychometric issues. A strong inverse correlation was found between PTG scores at time 2 and new onset mental health problems (PTSD, depression), where lower growth scores correlated with worse mental health (i.e. higher PTSD or depression screening scores). Only 5% of participants who screened positive for a mental health problem at time 2 experienced positive growth. Results suggest that measurement of PTG is not independent from mental health problems following combat experiences and thus challenge the clinical utility of the PTG construct.

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Lifetime Traumatic Brain Injury and Risk of Post-Concussive Symptoms in the Millennium Cohort Study Journal of Neurotrauma March 2024; 41(5-6): 613–622 doi: 10.1089/neu.2022.0213

Jannace K, Pompeii L, Gimeno Ruiz de Porras D, Perkison WB, Yamal JM, Trone DW, Rull RP

TBI was associated with greater risk of post-concussive symptoms (e.g., fatigue, poor concentration, memory loss) among active-duty service members with risk being greater as number of lifetime TBIs increased.

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A Comparison of the PRIME-MD PHQ-9 and PHQ-8 in a Large Military Prospective Study, The Millennium Cohort Study Journal of Affective Disorders May 2013; 148(1): 77-83

Wells TS, Horton JL, LeardMann CA, Jacobson IG, and Boyko EJ

The PHQ-9 is a validated tool for depression screening, however recently an abbreviated version (PHQ-8) is increasingly being used in survey research that excludes the last and most sensitive item. This study compared the performance of the PHQ-8 with the PHQ-9 in a large, population-based sample of current and former military service members. Excellent agreement was detected between the two instruments, suggesting that the PHQ-8 performs well when screening for depression in similar populations.

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