Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Smoking Among U.S. Service Members Following Transition From Military to Veteran Status Health Promotion Practice 2020 Jan;21(1_suppl):165S-175S

Nieh C, Powell TM, Gackstetter GD, Hooper TI

This study examined whether the time period just prior to military separation or the reasons for separation were associated with smoking among veterans. We found that service members are more likely to smoke when closer to their military separation date. The smoking prevalence among service members separating within 3 months was 23%, whereas 17% was observed among those separating in 2+ years. We also found that veterans who were heavy drinkers were 50% more likely to smoke and those with a standards/judicial-related separation reason were 69% more likely to smoke.

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Smokeless Tobacco Use Related to Military Deployment, Cigarettes, and Mental Health Symptoms in a Large, Prospective Cohort Study Among US Service Members Addiction 2012 May;107(5):983-994

Hermes ED, Wells TS, Smith B, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Miller SC, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Chronic use of smokeless tobacco has been linked to poor military training performance, early discharge, and a host of medical problems from cancer to heart disease. Smokeless tobacco initiation occurred in 1.9% and persistent use in 8.9% of Millennium Cohort participants. The study showed that deployment, combat exposure, smoking, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder increased the risk for smokeless tobacco initiation, while deployment and combat exposure increased the risk for persistent use.

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Smallpox Vaccination: Comparison of Self-Reported and Electronic Vaccine Records in the Millennium Cohort Study Human Vaccines 2007 Nov/Dec;3(6):245-51

LeardMann CA, Smith B, Smith TC, Wells TS, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Self-report of smallpox vaccination is very reliable. Results may be valuable in supporting global response to bioterrorism threats.

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Sleep Patterns Before, During, and After Deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan Sleep 2010 Dec;33(12):1615-22

Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Smith B, Hooper TI, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Gehrman PR, Macera CA, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Participants reported having trouble sleeping and getting less sleep either during deployment or after returning home from deployment more than nondeployed participants. Self-reported combat exposures and mental health symptoms were independently associated with increased reporting of trouble sleeping.

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Sleep Characteristics, Mental Health, and Diabetes Risk: A Prospective Study of US Military Service Members in the Millennium Cohort Study Diabetes Care 2013 Oct;36(10):3154-61

Boyko EJ, Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Hooper TI, Smith B, Smith TC, Crum-Cianflone NF

We investigated whether poor sleep and mental health symptoms were independently related to diabetes risk. During 6 years of follow-up, the annual incidence rate for type 2 diabetes was 3.6/1,000 person years. After adjusting for covariates including mental health disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, both trouble sleeping and sleep apnea significantly predicted diabetes risk independent of these mental health conditions and other diabetes risk factors.

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Sleep and Health Resilience Metrics in a Large Military Cohort Sleep 2016 May;39(5):1111-1120

Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Donoho CJ, Trone DW, Crum-Cianflone NF, Balkin TJ

The presence of insomnia symptoms was significantly associated with worse self-rated health, more lost work days, lower odds of deployment, higher odds of leaving military service early, and more health care utilization, after adjustment for demographic, military, behavioral and other health covariates. Findings were similar for those reporting less than 6 hours of sleep per night. Future research should focus on the efficacy of interventions to promote healthy sleep in military populations.

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Sexual Trauma and Adverse Health and Occupational Outcomes Among Men Serving in the US Military Journal of Traumatic Stress 2016 Apr;29(1):132-40

Millegan J, Wang L, LeardMann CA, Miletich D, Street AE

This study examined the association of recent sexual trauma with health and occupational outcomes among US Service men using longitudinal Millennium Cohort data (2004-2013). Findings from this study indicated that recent sexual trauma, sexual harassment or sexual assault, is associated with adverse physical health and mental health among Service men, after adjustment for relevant covariates. Men who reported sexual trauma were more likely to have left military service and experience post-service disability or unemployment. Results demonstrate that, among Service men, sexual trauma is significantly associated with adverse health and functionality extending to post-military life. Findings support the need for developing more effective prevention strategies and services to reduce the burden of sexual trauma of Service men.

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Sexual Health Problems among Service Men: The Influence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Journal of Sex Research 2021 Jan 11:1-13

Kolaja CA, Roenfeldt K, Armenta RF, Schuyler AC, Orman JA, Stander VA, LeardMann CA

Among service men, numerous factors (e.g. older age, lower education, enlisted paygrade, disabling injury, BMI) were associated with sexual health problems. PTSD mediated the associations between stressors (combat deployment and sexual assault) and sexual health outcomes. These findings indicate that sexual health is negatively affected by military-related stressors and comprehensive treatment options are warranted.

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Sexual Health Difficulties Among Service Women: The Influence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Journal of Affective Disorders 2021 Sep 1;292:678-686

Kolaja CA, Schuyler AC, Armenta RF, Orman JA, Stander VA, LeardMann CA

Sexual health of service women was found to be negatively impacted by recent combat deployment and sexual assault. Post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD) mediated the associations of recent combat deployment and sexual assault with sexual health difficulties. Some military factors (i.e., service branch, component, paygrade) were associated with sexual health difficulties among service women. Findings indicate that effective treatment of PTSD may mitigate sexual health issues.

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Sexual Harassment, Sexual Assault, and Physical Activity Among U.S. Military Service Members in the Millennium Cohort Study Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2019 Mar 2;886260519832904. doi: 10.1177/0886260519832904

Thomas CL, Nieh C, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, LeardMann CA, Porter B, Blazer DG; for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined the association of recent sexual trauma with subsequent physical activity levels among service members. The findings indicate that personnel who experienced sexual assault were more likely to report high levels of physical activity (300+ mins/week), while those who reported sexual harassment were less likely to engage in medium-high levels of physical activity (300-449 mins/week), compared with those without sexual harassment or sexual assault. This study highlights how coping responses to sexual trauma among current military members may be intertwined with physical activity.

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