Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Prior Assault and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Combat Deployment Epidemiology 2008 May;19(3):505-12

Smith TC, Wingard DL, Ryan MAK, Kritz-Silverstein D, Slymen DJ, Sallis JF, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

In contrast to hypotheses that survival from trauma represents or confers resilience, these findings suggest vulnerability to combat stress and PTSD among survivors of prior assault.

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Prevalence of Chronic Multisymptom Illness/Gulf War Illness Over Time Among Millennium Cohort Participants, 2001 to 2016 Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2020 Jan;62(1):4-10

Porter B, Long K, Rull RP, Dursa EK for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Chronic multisymptom illness/Gulf War illness (CMI/GWI) is a signature illness of the 1990-1991 Gulf War. Using a modified CMI/GWI definition, this study estimated the prevalence of CMI/GWI from 2001-2016 among Gulf War veterans and two other non-deployed groups enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study. Overall, Gulf War veterans had the highest prevalence of CMI/GWI across the study period. The prevalence among all three groups increased substantially at approximately the same rate from 2001 to 2016.

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Prevalence and predictors of insomnia and sleep medication use in a large tri-service U.S. military sample Sleep Health 2021 Dec;7(6):675-682

Markwald RR, Carey FR, Kolaja CA, Jacobson IG, Cooper AD, Chinoy ED

Several deployment-related characteristics were significantly associated with the development of insomnia and/or newly-reported sleep medication use, and more than half of the sample with insomnia reported using sleep medication, indicating a high rate of medicating for insomnia. These findings may indicate an underlying systematic issue related to the inability to obtain adequate sleep in military personnel

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Prescription Stimulants and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among US Military Service Members Journal of Traumatic Stress 2015 Dec;28(6):585-589

Crum-Cianflone NF, Frasco M, Armenta RF, Phillips CJ, Horton J, Ryan MAK, Russell DW, LeardMann CA

Millennium Cohort data from U.S. military members who completed the baseline survey, and two follow-up surveys were evaluated to determine associations between receipt of prescription stimulants and PTSD. Prescription stimulants were significantly associated with incident PTSD after adjustment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, baseline mental and physical health status, deployment experiences, and other known confounders. Findings from this study may inform the underlying pathogenesis of and preventive strategies for PTSD.

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Preinjury Psychiatric Status, Injury Severity, and Postdeployment Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Archives of General Psychiatry 2011 May;68(5):496-504

Sandweiss DA, Slymen DJ, LeardMann CA, Smith B, White MR, Boyko EJ, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Amoroso PJ, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Physical injuries were significantly associated with postdeployment PTSD. Baseline psychiatric status was also significantly associated with postdeployment PTSD, irrespective of injury severity. Deployed service members who suffer from a predeployment psychiatric condition or injury while deployed may benefit from interventions targeted to prevent postdeployment PTSD or ensure early identification and treatment.

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Predeployment Sleep Duration and Insomnia Symptoms as Risk Factors for New-Onset Mental Health Disorders Following Military Deployment Sleep 2013 Jul 1;36(7):1009-1018

Gehrman P, Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Ulmer CS, Smith TC

This study showed that combat-related trauma and predeployment insomnia symptoms were significantly associated with developing posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety following deployment. Assessment of insomnia symptoms predeployment may help to better identify those at highest risk for subsequent adverse mental health outcomes.

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Pre-incentive Efficacy in Survey Response Rates in a Large Prospective Military Cohort Field Methods 2023 Mar 17 | doi: 10.1177/1525822X231163668

Powell TM, Geronimo-Hara TR, Tobin LE, Donoho CJ, Sheppard BD, Walstrom JL, Rull RP, Faix DJ

U.S. military and veteran populations are challenging to retain in longitudinal studies as they span the globe, frequently move, and are heavily surveyed. This study tested the effectiveness of multiple pre-incentives ($2 bill, $5 gift card, magnet, and Apple iPad® lottery entry) on increasing the response rate to the 2014 survey of the Millennium Cohort Study. Findings suggest that providing participants a monetary pre-incentive was an effective way to increase response rates and participant retention as well as re-engage participants who did not respond to a previous follow-up survey.

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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Veteran Health Administration, Use and Care Seeking Among Post 9/11 U.S. Veterans Journal of Traumatic Stress 2024 Feb 29 | doi: 10.1002/jts.23019 | Online ahead of print

Porter B, Dozier ME, Seelig A, Zhu Y, Patoilo M, Boyko EJ, Rull RP

Veterans with probable PTSD were more likely to use Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services than veterans without probable PTSD. Among these veterans with probable PTSD, those with recent VHA use were more likely to have reported seeking care for PTSD compared to those who did not use VHA services in the past year.

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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Clusters in Service Members Predict New-Onset Depression Among Military Spouses Journal of Traumatic Stress 2020 Sep 3. doi: 10.1002/jts.22575

Walter KH, LeardMann CA, Carballo CE, McMaster HM, Donoho CJ, & Stander VA

Among spouses of service members with probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 14% met criteria for new-onset depression over a 3-year period. The service member’s PTSD symptom cluster of effortful avoidance was associated with an increased risk of new-onset depression in spouses, underscoring the impact of service member psychological symptoms on the spouse.

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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Association With Subsequent Risky and Problem Drinking Initiation Journal of Addiction Medicine 2018 Sep/Oct;12(5):353-362

Bensley KM, Seelig AD, Armenta RF, Rivera AC, Peterson AV, Jacobson IG, Littman AJ, Maynard C, Bricker JB, Boyko EJ, Rull RP, and Williams EC

This study investigated the association between PTSD symptoms and symptom clusters and the initiation of risky and problem drinking. One PTSD symptom (irritability/anger) was associated with a higher risk of risky drinking initiation. Five PTSD symptoms (restricted affect, sense of foreshortened future, exaggerated startle response, sleep disturbance, and irritability/anger) and two symptom clusters (dysphoric arousal and emotional numbing) were associated with an increased risk of problem drinking initiation.

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