Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Obesity and Associated Adverse Health Outcomes Among US Military Members: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study Obesity 2016 Jul;24(7):1582-1589

Rush T, LeardMann CA, Crum-Cianflone NF

This study examined body weight among Service members and Veterans over time (2001-2007), finding a doubling of the prevalence of obesity. Obesity rates were significantly higher among veterans, including among those recently discharged from service. The study found that military personnel, even during service time, experienced weight gain and the development of obesity. Individuals with obesity had higher rates of adverse physical, mental, and functional health, suggesting that weight control should be a DoD and national priority.

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Newly Reported Respiratory Symptoms and Conditions Among Military Personnel Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan: A Prospective Population-Based Study American Journal of Epidemiology 2009 Dec;170(11):1433-42

Smith B, Wong CA, Smith TC, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Elevated risk for self-reported respiratory symptoms was found among Army and Marine Corps personnel deployed in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. No increased risk for self-reported asthma, bronchitis, or emphysema was found.

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Newly Reported Lupus and Rheumatoid Arthritis in Relation to Deployment Within Proximity to a Documented Open-Air Burn Pit in Iraq Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2012 June;54(6):698-707

Jones KA, Smith B, Granado NS, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Ryan MAK, Phillips CJ, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined the incidence lupus and rheumatoid arthritis in relation to Army and Air Force personnel deployed within a 3- and 5-mile radius of documented open-air burn pits located in Iraq at Joint Base Balad, Camp Speicher, and Camp Taji. Overall, the results indicate no elevated risk of newly reported lupus or rheumatoid arthritis in the combined three-camp analysis. However, possible exposure at Balad was individually associated with newly reported lupus, although only two cases were at this site. Additional studies, including individual exposure data, are needed to further investigate these associations.

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Newly Reported Hypertension After Military Combat Deployment in a Large Population-Based Study Hypertension 2009 Nov;54(5):966-73

Granado NS, Smith TC, Swanson GM, Harris RB, Shahar E, Smith B, Boyko EJ, Wells TS, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Findings suggest that deployers who report multiple combat exposures, especially those who personally witnessed a death due to war or disaster, are at higher risk for newly-reported hypertension, possibly indicating a stress-induced hypertensive effect.

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New-Onset Asthma and Combat Deployment: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study American Journal of Epidemiology 2018 Oct 1;187(10):2136-2144

Rivera AC, Powell TM, Boyko EJ, Lee RU, Faix DJ, Luxton DD, and Rull RP

New-onset asthma developed in 2.7% of men and 4.6% of women during the follow-up period, among participants without a prior diagnosis of asthma at baseline. Compared with those who did not deploy, those who deployed with combat experience were 24-30% more likely to develop asthma, even after controlling for smoking status and other covariates. No elevated risk was observed for deployers who did not experience combat. Additional risk factors for asthma among both men and women included Hispanic ethnicity, overweight or obesity, Army service, stressful life events, PTSD, and health care or other technical occupations.

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New Onset and Persistent Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Self-Reported after Deployment and Combat Exposures: Prospective Population-Based US Military Cohort Study British Medical Journal 2008 Feb;336(7640):366-71

Smith TC, Ryan MAK, Wingard DL, Slymen DJ, Sallis JF, Kritz-Silverstein D, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Findings define the importance of PTSD in this population and emphasize that specific combat exposures, rather than deployment itself, significantly affect the onset of PTSD symptoms postdeployment.

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Multiple imputation validation study: Addressing unmeasured survey data in a longitudinal design BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 Jan 6;21(1):5

Kolaja CA, Porter B, Powell TM, Rull RP, Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined the efficiency and feasibility of multiple imputation (MI) to recover data from a question completely missing at a follow-up survey assessment. Specifically, the suicidal ideation item on the depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire was set to missing on a follow-up survey and then filled in using different MI models. Imputed and self-reported suicidal ideation were similarly associated with the related constructs of sleep duration and smoking status, suggesting that MI allowed for the inclusion of an otherwise missing item as a covariate in statistical models.

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Millennium Cohort: The 2001-2003 Baseline Prevalence of Mental Disorders in the US Military Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2007 Feb;60(2):192-201

Riddle JR, Smith TC, Smith B, Corbeil TE, Engel CC, Wells TS, Hoge CW, Adkins J, Zamorski M, Blazer D, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

The baseline prevalence of mental disorders in this 22-year longitudinal study compares favorably with other civilian and military populations.

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Millennium Cohort: Enrollment Begins a 21-year Contribution to Understanding the Impact of Military Service Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2007 Feb;60(2):181-91

Ryan MA, Smith TC, Smith B, Amoroso P, Boyko EJ, Gray GC, Gackstetter GD, Riddle JR, Wells TS, Gumbs G, Corbeil TE, Hooper TI, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

A foundation report, this describes original enrollment methods and challenges of the Millennium Cohort Study. Characteristics of the first 77,047 participants are detailed and shown to strongly represent the population-based sample of the US military from which they were drawn.

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Military Combat Deployment and Alcohol Use Reply Journal of the American Medical Association 2008 Dec;300(22):2607

Jacobson IG, Smith TC, Bell NS

Highlights the utility of CAGE screening questions for use as controlling factors for those with potential problems using alcohol at baseline.

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