Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Among US Military Health Care Professionals Deployed in Support of the Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan Journal of Traumatic Stress 2012 Dec;25(6):616-23

Jacobson IG, Horton JL, LeardMann CA, Ryan MAK, Boyko EJ, Wells TS, Smith B, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Among military personnel deployed with combat experience, health care professionals did not have increased odds for new-onset PTSD or depression over time compared to individuals in other occupations. Combat experience significantly increased the odds for new-onset PTSD or depression among deployed health care professionals, suggesting that combat experience, not features specific to being a health care professional, was the key exposure explaining development of these outcomes.

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Postcards Encourage Participant Updates Epidemiology 2009 Mar;20(2):313-4

Welch KE, LeardMann CA, Jacobson IG, Speigle SJ, Smith B, Smith TC, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

The results of this study quantify and confirm that semiannual appreciatory contact is an effective way to maintain communication with a highly mobile participant population while prompting updates of contact information.

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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Predicts Future Weight Change in the Millennium Cohort Study Obesity 2015 Apr;23(4):886-92

LeardMann CA, Woodall KA, Littman AJ, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Wells TS, Crum-Cianflone NF

Data from Millennium Cohort Study participants (2001-2008), consisting of US Service members and Veterans, were used to prospectively examine the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and weight change. A significant and consistent association of PTSD with subsequent three-year weight gain and the development of obesity was found in adjusted models. Given these findings, weight gain and development of obesity should be considered important comorbidities for PTSD; existing screening and treatment programs should make sure to address these associated conditions.

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Patterns of Smoking and Unhealthy Alcohol Use Following Sexual Trauma Among US Service Members Journal of Traumatic Stress 2017 Oct;30(5):502-511

Seelig AD, Rivera AC, Powell TM, Williams EC, Peterson AV, Littman AJ, Maynard C, Street AE, Bricker JB, Boyko EJ

Following sexual assault while serving in the military, women had double the risk for unhealthy alcohol use relapse while men had 6 times the risk for smoking relapse compared with women and men who did not experience sexual assault, respectively. No other associations between sexual trauma (assault or harassment) and subsequent smoking or unhealthy alcohol use were observed. Substance use prevention measures are recommended for those who experience sexual assault and have a history of smoking and unhealthy alcohol use.

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Occupation and Risk of Traumatic Brain Injury in the Millennium Cohort Study Military Medicine 2022 Feb 27;usac035

Jannace KC, Pompeii L, Gimeno Ruiz de Porras D, Perkison WB, Yamal JM, Trone DW, Rull RP

Using 2014-16 survey data from active duty 33,646 Millennium Cohort Study participants, we assessed the association between their primary military occupational categories (MOC) and self-reported traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained during military service. Adjusting for military and demographic characteristics and pre-service TBI, all MOCs except for health care MOCs were statistically significantly more likely to experience service-related TBI compared with “Administration & Executive” MOCs, while those in “Infantry/Tactical Operations” had the highest odds of service-related TBI. Enlisted (28%) personnel were more likely than officers (24%) to experience a service-related TBI. Results highlight the importance of targeting specific occupational categories for TBI risk reduction and a quantification of risk among enlisted MOCs suggests a need for further research into the causes of TBI.

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Obesity and Associated Adverse Health Outcomes Among US Military Members: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study Obesity 2016 Jul;24(7):1582-1589

Rush T, LeardMann CA, Crum-Cianflone NF

This study examined body weight among Service members and Veterans over time (2001-2007), finding a doubling of the prevalence of obesity. Obesity rates were significantly higher among veterans, including among those recently discharged from service. The study found that military personnel, even during service time, experienced weight gain and the development of obesity. Individuals with obesity had higher rates of adverse physical, mental, and functional health, suggesting that weight control should be a DoD and national priority.

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Newly Reported Respiratory Symptoms and Conditions Among Military Personnel Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan: A Prospective Population-Based Study American Journal of Epidemiology 2009 Dec;170(11):1433-42

Smith B, Wong CA, Smith TC, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Elevated risk for self-reported respiratory symptoms was found among Army and Marine Corps personnel deployed in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. No increased risk for self-reported asthma, bronchitis, or emphysema was found.

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Newly Reported Lupus and Rheumatoid Arthritis in Relation to Deployment Within Proximity to a Documented Open-Air Burn Pit in Iraq Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2012 June;54(6):698-707

Jones KA, Smith B, Granado NS, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Ryan MAK, Phillips CJ, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined the incidence lupus and rheumatoid arthritis in relation to Army and Air Force personnel deployed within a 3- and 5-mile radius of documented open-air burn pits located in Iraq at Joint Base Balad, Camp Speicher, and Camp Taji. Overall, the results indicate no elevated risk of newly reported lupus or rheumatoid arthritis in the combined three-camp analysis. However, possible exposure at Balad was individually associated with newly reported lupus, although only two cases were at this site. Additional studies, including individual exposure data, are needed to further investigate these associations.

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Newly Reported Hypertension After Military Combat Deployment in a Large Population-Based Study Hypertension 2009 Nov;54(5):966-73

Granado NS, Smith TC, Swanson GM, Harris RB, Shahar E, Smith B, Boyko EJ, Wells TS, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Findings suggest that deployers who report multiple combat exposures, especially those who personally witnessed a death due to war or disaster, are at higher risk for newly-reported hypertension, possibly indicating a stress-induced hypertensive effect.

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New-Onset Asthma and Combat Deployment: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study American Journal of Epidemiology 2018 Oct 1;187(10):2136-2144

Rivera AC, Powell TM, Boyko EJ, Lee RU, Faix DJ, Luxton DD, and Rull RP

New-onset asthma developed in 2.7% of men and 4.6% of women during the follow-up period, among participants without a prior diagnosis of asthma at baseline. Compared with those who did not deploy, those who deployed with combat experience were 24-30% more likely to develop asthma, even after controlling for smoking status and other covariates. No elevated risk was observed for deployers who did not experience combat. Additional risk factors for asthma among both men and women included Hispanic ethnicity, overweight or obesity, Army service, stressful life events, PTSD, and health care or other technical occupations.

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