Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Association of Combat Experiences With Suicide Attempts Among Active-Duty US Service Members JAMA Network Open 2021;4(2):e2036065

LeardMann CA, Matsuno R, Boyko EJ, Powell TM, Reger MA, Hoge CW, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Among 57,841 active-duty service members who had deployed, high combat severity and certain specific combat experiences were associated with suicide attempts. However, these associations were mostly accounted for by mental disorders, especially PTSD. Findings suggest that service members who experience high levels of combat or are exposed to certain types of combat experiences, involving unexpected events or those that challenge moral or ethical norms, may have an increased risk of a suicide attempt, either directly or indirectly through mental disorders.

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Comparison of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Instruments from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition vs Fifth Edition in a Large Cohort of US Military Service Members and Veterans JAMA Network Open 2021; 4(4): e218072

LeardMann, CA, McMaster HS, Warner S, Esquivel AP, Porter B, Powell TM, Tu XM, Lee WW, Rull RP, Hoge CW, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

To assist in the longitudinal assessment of PTSD spanning the transition between the DSM-IV and DSM-V, we compared the PTSD Checklist-Civilian version (PCL-C) with the PCL for DSM-5 (PCL-5) in a sample of 1,921 servicemembers. There was substantial to excellent agreement when comparing individual items, frequency of probable PTSD, and sum scores; and nearly identical associations with comorbid conditions. Our results provide support that PTSD can be successfully assessed and compared over time with either PCL instrument in veteran and military populations.

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Profile of Two Cohorts: UK and US Prospective Studies of Military Health International Journal of Epidemiology 2012 Oct;41(5):1272-82

Pinder RJ, Greenberg N, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Hooper TI, Murphy D, Ryan MA, Smith B, Smith TC, Wells TS, Wessely S, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Despite differences and limitations in methodologies, analyses of these two cohorts provide the prospect of driving improvement and innovation in military health and extending findings to other occupational populations.

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The Occupational Role of Women in Military Service: Validation of Occupation and Prevalence of Exposures in the Millennium Cohort Study International Journal of Environmental Health Research 2007 Aug;17(4):271-84

Smith TC, Jacobson IG, Smith B, Hooper TI, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Data on women's occupations are reliable, and occupational codes can be well correlated with exposures of concern. This was an award-winning presentation at a Navy conference in 2006.

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Weight Change Following US Military Service Int J Obes (Lond) 2013 Feb;37(2):244-53

Littman AJ, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ, Powell TM, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study provides the first prospectively collected evidence for an increased rate of weight gain around the time of military discharge that may explain previously reported higher rates of obesity in veterans, and identifies characteristics of higher-risk groups. Discharge from military service presents a window of risk and opportunity to prevent unhealthy weight gain in military personnel and veterans.

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Newly Reported Hypertension After Military Combat Deployment in a Large Population-Based Study Hypertension 2009 Nov;54(5):966-73

Granado NS, Smith TC, Swanson GM, Harris RB, Shahar E, Smith B, Boyko EJ, Wells TS, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Findings suggest that deployers who report multiple combat exposures, especially those who personally witnessed a death due to war or disaster, are at higher risk for newly-reported hypertension, possibly indicating a stress-induced hypertensive effect.

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Smallpox Vaccination: Comparison of Self-Reported and Electronic Vaccine Records in the Millennium Cohort Study Human Vaccines 2007 Nov/Dec;3(6):245-51

LeardMann CA, Smith B, Smith TC, Wells TS, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Self-report of smallpox vaccination is very reliable. Results may be valuable in supporting global response to bioterrorism threats.

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Self-Reported Adverse Health Events Following Smallpox Vaccination in a Large Prospective Study of US Military Service Members Human Vaccines 2008 Mar/Apr;4(2):127-33

Wells TS, LeardMann CA, Smith TC, Smith B, Jacobson IG, Reed RJ, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Smallpox vaccination was not associated with any adverse self-reported health outcomes, including mental and physical functioning. These findings may be reassuring to health care providers and those who receive the smallpox vaccination.

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Smoking Among U.S. Service Members Following Transition From Military to Veteran Status Health Promotion Practice 2020 Jan;21(1_suppl):165S-175S

Nieh C, Powell TM, Gackstetter GD, Hooper TI

This study examined whether the time period just prior to military separation or the reasons for separation were associated with smoking among veterans. We found that service members are more likely to smoke when closer to their military separation date. The smoking prevalence among service members separating within 3 months was 23%, whereas 17% was observed among those separating in 2+ years. We also found that veterans who were heavy drinkers were 50% more likely to smoke and those with a standards/judicial-related separation reason were 69% more likely to smoke.

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Headache Disorders in the Millennium Cohort: Epidemiology and Relations with Combat Deployment Headache 2011 Jul-Aug;51(7);1098-1111

Jankosky C, Hooper TI, Granado NS, Scher A, Gackstetter GD, Boyko EJ, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Deployed personnel with reported combat exposure appear to represent a higher risk group for new-onset headache disorders. The identification of populations at higher risk for development of headache provides support for targeted interventions.

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