Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Title Publication Date/Location
The physical and mental health of a large military cohort: baseline functional health status of the Millennium Cohort BMC Public Health 2007 Nov;7(147):340

Smith TC, Zamorski M, Smith B, Riddle JR, LeardMann CA, Wells TS, Engel CC, Hoge CW, Adkins J, Blazer D, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

The functional health of service members in this 22-year longitudinal study compares favorably at baseline with other civilian and military populations.

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Health impact of US military service in a large population-based military cohort: findings of the Millennium Cohort Study, 2001-2008 BMC Public Health 2011 Jan;11(1):69

Smith TC, Jacobson IG, Hooper TI, LeardMann CA, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Gackstetter GD, Wells TS, Amoroso PJ, Gray GC, Riddle JR, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This report summarizes findings from the Millennium Cohort Study through 2008 that have addressed health concerns related to military service. Conducting strategic studies aimed to identify, reduce, and prevent adverse health outcomes in military members have guided public health policy and will continue to affect policy for years to come.

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Evaluation of a modified version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory-Short Form BMC Research Methodology 2017 Apr;17(1):69

Kaur N, Porter B, LeardMann CA, Tobin TE, Lemus H, Luxton DD

This study sought to validate a modified measure of posttraumatic growth, personal growth, and change that may occur following trauma. Results indicate that this modified measure may be used to assess well-being at one time point or growth over two time points. Furthermore, the two items assessing spirituality had a strong relationship with each other and may be used alone in future studies.

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Trajectories of trauma symptoms and resilience in deployed U.S. military service members: a prospective cohort study British Journal of Psychiatry 2012 Apr;200(4):317-23

Bonanno GA, Mancini AD, Horton JL, Powell TM, LeardMann CA, Boyko EJ, Wells TS, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) were examined over time in relation to deployment. Four classes of PTS trajectories were identified for both single and multiple deployers, with over 80% of the deployers exhibiting a stable trajectory of low symptoms (i.e., resilience) pre- to post-deployment. Several factors predicting PTS trajectories were identified, which may direct future research aimed at decreasing the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder among deployers

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New onset and persistent symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder self-reported after deployment and combat exposures: prospective population-based US military cohort study British Medical Journal 2008 Feb;336(7640):366-71

Smith TC, Ryan MAK, Wingard DL, Slymen DJ, Sallis JF, Kritz-Silverstein D, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Findings define the importance of PTSD in this population and emphasize that specific combat exposures, rather than deployment itself, significantly affect the onset of PTSD symptoms postdeployment.

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Baseline self-reported functional health predicts vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder following combat deployment: prospective US military cohort study British Medical Journal 2009 Apr;338:b1273

LeardMann CA, Smith TC, Smith B, Wells TS, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Military service members who screen in the lowest 15% of health prior to combat exposure are more vulnerable to developing postdeployment PTSD.

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Impact of combat deployment and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on newly reported coronary heart disease among US Active Duty and Reserve forces Circulation 2014;129:1813-1820

Crum-Cianflone NF, Bagnell ME, Schaller E, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Maynard C, Ulmer CS, Vernalis M and Smith TC

This study evaluated the association of combat deployments and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on coronary heart disease among a young cohort of US service members. Experiencing combat deployment was associated with an increased odds of coronary heart disease by both self-report and medical record diagnosis after adjustment for demographic, military, and mental health characteristics. Screening positive for PTSD was not associated with CHD after adjustment. This study demonstrates that intense and acute stressful life experiences may increase the risk for coronary heart disease over a relatively short period among young adults.

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Sleep characteristics, mental health, and diabetes risk: a prospective study of U.S. military service members in the Millennium Cohort Study Diabetes Care 2013 Oct;36(10):3154-61

Boyko EJ, Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Hooper TI, Smith B, Smith TC, Crum-Cianflone NF

We investigated whether poor sleep and mental health symptoms were independently related to diabetes risk. During 6 years of follow-up, the annual incidence rate for type 2 diabetes was 3.6/1,000 person years. After adjusting for covariates including mental health disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, both trouble sleeping and sleep apnea significantly predicted diabetes risk independent of these mental health conditions and other diabetes risk factors.

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Risk of diabetes in US military service members in relation to combat deployment and mental health Diabetes Care 2010 Aug;33(8):1771-7

Boyko EJ, Jacobson IJ, Smith B, Ryan MAK, Hooper TI, Amoroso PJ, Gackstetter GD, Barrett-Connor E, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Higher risk of new onset self-reported diabetes mellitus among cohort members was observed over three years of follow-up in persons with PTSD symptoms at baseline. This association was independent of age, gender, overall body adiposity, and the presence of other mental health conditions. There was no independent association of new onset diabetes with deployment in support of OEF/OIF.

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Risk factors for relapse to problem drinking among current and former US military personnel: A prospective study of the Millennium Cohort. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2015; 148:93-101.

Williams EC, Frasco MA, Jacobson IG, Maynard C, Littman AJ, Seelig AD, Crum-Cianflone NF, Nagel A, Boyko EJ.

This study investigated demographic, military, behavioral, and health characteristics associated with relapse among current and former military members with remittent problem drinking. The findings from this study suggest 16% of this population relapse. Several military and non-military characteristics were found to predict relapse, including being in the Reserve/National Guard compared to Active-duty and screening positive for mental health conditions. Targeted intervention to prevent relapse may be indicated for particular subgroups.

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