Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Impact of Terrorism on Caffeine and Tobacco Use Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2004 Dec;46(12):1194-5

Smith TC, Smith B, Corbeil TE, Ryan MAK, Riddle JR, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

[letter in response to "Self-reported mental health among US military personnel, prior and subsequent to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001"]

Authors of a previously highlighted article respond to important suggestions on future analyses.

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Individual Augmentee Deployment and Newly Reported Mental Health Morbidity Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2012 May;54(5):615-620

Granado NS, Zimmermann L, Smith B, Jones KA, Wells TS, Ryan MAK, Slymen DL, Koffman RL, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Individual augmentees (IAs), who presumably have lower social support or unit cohesion, were not at increased risk for PTSD or mental health symptoms following deployment compared with non-IA deployers. It is likely that social isolation was not highly influential among Navy IAs in this study.

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Is Military Deployment a Risk Factor for Maternal Depression? Journal of Women's Health 2013 Jan; 22(1):9-18

Nguyen S, LeardMann CA, Smith B, Conlin AMS, Slymen DJ, Hooper TI, Ryan MAK, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study found that military women who recently gave birth and then deployed with combat experience had an increased risk for depression. Combat experience primarily increased the risk for depression, rather than childbirth itself. In addition, deployment without combat experience was not significantly associated with maternal depression among women who recently gave birth.

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Linking Exposures and Health Outcomes to a Large Population-Based Longitudinal Study: the Millennium Cohort Study Military Medicine 2011 Jul;176(7 Suppl):56-63

Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Linking Millennium Cohort prospective data to individual-level exposure data is critical for understanding and quantifying any long-term health outcomes potentially associated with unique military occupational exposures.

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Longitudinal Assessment of Gender Differences in the Development of PTSD Among US Military Personnel Deployed in Support of the Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan Journal of Psychiatric Research 2015;68:30-36

Jacobson IG, Donoho CJ, Crum-Cianflone NF, Maguen S

Using prospective data from Millennium Cohort Study participants, a propensity score matching technique was used to match 1 male with each female using demographic, military, and behavioral factors including baseline sexual assault. After stratifying by combat experience and adjusting for sexual assault at follow-up, findings revealed no significant gender differences for new-onset postdeployment PTSD among men and women including among those who experienced combat.

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Longitudinal Assessment of Mental Disorders, Smoking, and Hazardous Drinking Among a Population-Based Cohort of US Service Members Journal of Addiction Medicine 2014 Jul-Aug;8(4):271-281

Smith TC, LeardMann CA, Smith B, Jacobson IG, Miller SC, Wells TS, Boyko EJ, Ryan MAK

This study investigated mental disorders in association with hazardous drinking and cigarette smoking. These prospective data highlight the inter-related nature of these symptoms and behaviors and the potentially complex bi-directional causal pathway. Military health professionals should consider the constellation of potential behaviors and symptoms during the treatment of specific mental health illnesses and negative health behaviors.

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Longitudinal Assessment of Self-Reported Recent Back Pain and Combat Deployment in the Millennium Cohort Study Spine 2016;41:1754–1763

Granado NS, Pietrucha A, Ryan M, Boyko EJ, Hooper TI, Smith B, Smith TC

Among military personnel, back pain is among the most frequent reasons for medical visits and lost duty time, and has been associated with pain-related disability. This study found that 15.5% of participants reported recent back pain at follow-up. Our study confirmed the high burden of this condition in the military, showing that deployers with combat experiences had a 38% higher odds of reporting back pain at follow-up, and 27% higher odds of repeated back pain, compared with deployers without combat experiences. Additionally, exposures associated with a physically demanding work environment were related to a higher risk of back pain. This well-defined group of military personnel would potentially benefit from integrated prevention efforts focused on mitigating and eliminating back pain over time.

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Longitudinal Associations Among PTSD, Disordered Eating, and Weight Gain in Military Men and Women American Journal of Epidemiology 2016 Jul 1;184(1):33-47

Mitchell KS, Porter B, Boyko EJ, Field AE

This study examined longitudinal associations between PTSD, disordered eating, and weight change in Millennium Cohort data from U.S. military Service members who completed the baseline survey and first and second follow-up surveys. The association between PTSD and weight change from time 2 to time 3 was partially mediated by disordered eating symptoms measured at time 2, specifically compensatory behaviors (vomiting, laxative use, fasting, over-exercise). In stratified models, the association between PTSD and weight gain via compensatory behaviors was significant for men and for non-Hispanic white participants only. Results highlight potentially important demographic differences in these associations and emphasize the need for further investigation of eating disorders in military Service members.

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Longitudinal associations of military-related factors on self-reported sleep among U.S. service members Sleep 2021 Dec 10;44(12):zsab168

Cooper AD, Kolaja CA, Markwald RR, Jacobson IG, Chinoy ED

This study examined military factors in relation to the development and reoccurrence of short sleep duration (≤5 hours or 6 hours) and insomnia symptoms (i.e., trouble falling asleep or staying asleep in the past month)over a 3-15 year follow-up period. Military factors consistently associated with an increased risk for development and/or reoccurrence of short sleep duration and insomnia symptoms included active duty service, Army or Marine Corps service, combat deployment, and longer than average deployment lengths. Officers and noncombat deployers had decreased risk for either poor sleep characteristic. Length of service and separation from the military were complex factors; each lowered risk for ≤5 hours sleep but increased risk for insomnia symptoms. Findings suggest that efforts to improve sleep prioritization and implement interventions targeting at-risk military populations, behaviors, and other significant factors are warranted.

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Longitudinal Examination of the Influence of Individual Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Clusters of Symptoms on the Initiation of Cigarette Smoking Journal of Addiction Medicine Sep/Oct;12(5):363-372

Seelig AD, Bensley KM, Williams EC, Armenta RF, Rivera AC, Peterson AV, Jacobson IG, Littman AJ, Maynard C, Bricker JB, Rull RP, Boyko EJ for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined the risk for smoking initiation by each of the 17 PTSD symptoms that characterize the disorder. No significant associations between specific PTSD symptoms and subsequent smoking initiation were observed in this study population. Among the subsample who screened positive for PTSD, "feeling irritable or having angry outbursts" and "feeling as though your future will somehow be cut short" were associated with a higher risk of subsequent smoking initiation.

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