Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Examination of Post-Service Health-Related Quality of Life Among Rural and Urban Military Members of the Millennium Cohort Study Journal of Rural Social Sciences 2011;26(3):32-56

Proctor SP, Wells TS, Jones KA, Boyko EJ, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

In this large population-based sample of young US veterans recently separated from military service, health-related quality of life (HRQL) was not significantly different among rural and urban residents in the adjusted analyses and deployment experience did not alter the association between the outcome and rural or urban residence. These results suggest that rural status is not independently associated with HRQL among recent U.S. veterans.

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Exploratory Factor Analysis of Self-Reported Symptoms in a Large, Population-Based Military Cohort BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 Oct;10(1):94

Kelton ML, LeardMann CA, Smith B, Boyko EJ, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Bliese PD, Hoge CW, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Using exploratory factor analysis, this study examined mental and physical health symptom covariance structure. A 14-factor model accounted for 60% of the variance indicating a reasonable amount of construct overlap and that the number and type of questions appropriately assess a spectrum of heterogeneous symptoms.

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Factors associated with human papillomavirus vaccine initiation and compliance among U.S. military service members Military Medicine 2022 Jan 25:usab562

Matsuno RK, Seay J, Porter B, Tannenbaum K, Warner S, Wells N

The goal of this study was to assess factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation and compliance in a cohort of active duty US military service members (SM). We included active-duty participants aged 18-26 years from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal cohort study of over 200,000 military SMs. The eligible study population included 22,387 female SMs and 31,705 male SMs. Vaccination was assessed over the period 2006-2017. Among female SMs, 37.8% initiated the vaccine and 40.2% of initiators completed the series within a year. Among male SMs, 3.9% initiated the vaccine and 22.1% of initiators completed the series within a year. Differences were observed by sociodemographic factors, deployment status, branch of service, occupation, and smoking status, but not by selected mental health conditions. These results indicated that HPV vaccination uptake may be subpar across all military service branches. Certain subgroups of SMs could be targeted to increase overall HPV vaccine coverage in the US military population.

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Factors Associated With Persistent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among U.S. Military Service Members and Veterans BMC Psychiatry 2018 Feb 17;18(1):48

Armenta RF, Rush T, LeardMann CA, Millegan J, Cooper AD, Hoge, CW

Among service members and veterans who screened positive for PTSD at baseline, 47% met the criteria for persistent PTSD. Combat experiences and PTSD severity were found to be the most salient factors associated with persistent PTSD; other associated factors included co-morbid conditions, sleep problems, and somatic symptoms. These findings corroborate the need for more comprehensive and accessible treatment to address both PTSD symptoms and comorbid conditions.

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Headache Disorders in the Millennium Cohort: Epidemiology and Relations with Combat Deployment Headache 2011 Jul-Aug;51(7);1098-1111

Jankosky C, Hooper TI, Granado NS, Scher A, Gackstetter GD, Boyko EJ, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Deployed personnel with reported combat exposure appear to represent a higher risk group for new-onset headache disorders. The identification of populations at higher risk for development of headache provides support for targeted interventions.

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Health Care Utilization Among Complementary and Alternative Medicine Users in a Large Military Cohort BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011 Apr;11:27

White MR, Jacobson IG, Smith B, Wells TS, Gackstetter GD, Boyko EJ, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Our findings provide evidence that CAM users are utilizing more physician-based medical services than users of conventional care. Those using CAM account for 45.1% of outpatient care and 44.8% of inpatient care, but make up only 39% of the study population. Whether CAM use is supplementing current conventional medical practice to meet the health care needs of these individuals is not fully understood.

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Health Disparities Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Service Members and Veterans American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2022 Jul 3;S0749-3797(22)00304-X

Carey FR, LeardMann CA, Lehavot K, Jacobson IG, Kolaja CA, Stander VA, Rull RP, Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined whether differences in mental, physical, and behavioral health exist by sexual orientation among active duty and Reserve/National Guard service members and veterans (N=96,930). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals (3.6% of the sample) were more likely to screen positive for post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, binge eating, problematic anger, multiple somatic symptoms, and insomnia than heterosexual individuals. LGB women reported more adverse health outcomes (overweight and obesity, smoking, problem/risky drinking) than heterosexual women. Gay and bisexual men reported some adverse health outcomes (e.g., smoking and problem drinking) but better physical health (e.g., less overweight/obesity) than heterosexual men. These results suggest that LGB service members experience health disparities, despite many having equal eligibility for health care, highlighting the need for improved equity initiatives that promote cultural responsiveness, acceptance, and approaches to support the healthcare needs of LGB military members.

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Health Impact of US Military Service in a Large Population-Based Military Cohort: Findings of the Millennium Cohort Study, 2001-2008 BMC Public Health 2011 Jan;11(1):69

Smith TC, Jacobson IG, Hooper TI, LeardMann CA, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Gackstetter GD, Wells TS, Amoroso PJ, Gray GC, Riddle JR, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This report summarizes findings from the Millennium Cohort Study through 2008 that have addressed health concerns related to military service. Conducting strategic studies aimed to identify, reduce, and prevent adverse health outcomes in military members have guided public health policy and will continue to affect policy for years to come.

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Health of Army Veterinarians and Veterinary Technicians in the Millennium Cohort Study Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2021 Apr 1;258(7):767-775

Rivera AC, Geronimo-Hara TR, LeardMann CA, Penix EA, Phillips CJ, Faix DJ, Rull RP, Whitmer DL, Adler AB, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This analysis assessed the risk of mental health problems, suicidal ideation, psychotropic medication use, problem drinking, sleep quality, and lack of social support among 101 Army veterinarians and 334 veterinary technicians compared with other Army medical professionals (856 physicians and dentists and 6,453 medics, respectively) enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study. Compared with physicians and dentists, veterinarians had elevated risks for mental health problems, trouble sleeping, and lack of social support after adjusting for important factors such as age, sex, race/ethnicity, financial problems, and deployment status. Veterinary technicians had no significantly elevated risks for any of the adverse outcomes of interest compared with medics.

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Health Status of Gulf War and Era Veterans Serving in the US Military in 2000 Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2018 May;60(5):e261-e267

Porter B, Long K, Rull RP, Dursa EK for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This paper describes Gulf War Veterans and non-deployed Gulf era personnel enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study. Comparing distributions of survey responses with those from a population-based sample collected by the VA, we found that Millennium Cohort participants reported slightly better health, particularly regarding mental health. The Millennium Cohort Study is an important resource for investigating the health effects of Gulf War deployment.

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