Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Newly Reported Respiratory Symptoms and Conditions Among Military Personnel Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan: A Prospective Population-Based Study American Journal of Epidemiology 2009 Dec;170(11):1433-42

Smith B, Wong CA, Smith TC, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Elevated risk for self-reported respiratory symptoms was found among Army and Marine Corps personnel deployed in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. No increased risk for self-reported asthma, bronchitis, or emphysema was found.

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Obesity and Associated Adverse Health Outcomes Among US Military Members: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study Obesity 2016 Jul;24(7):1582-1589

Rush T, LeardMann CA, Crum-Cianflone NF

This study examined body weight among Service members and Veterans over time (2001-2007), finding a doubling of the prevalence of obesity. Obesity rates were significantly higher among veterans, including among those recently discharged from service. The study found that military personnel, even during service time, experienced weight gain and the development of obesity. Individuals with obesity had higher rates of adverse physical, mental, and functional health, suggesting that weight control should be a DoD and national priority.

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Occupation and Risk of Traumatic Brain Injury in the Millennium Cohort Study Military Medicine 2022 Feb 27;usac035

Jannace KC, Pompeii L, Gimeno Ruiz de Porras D, Perkison WB, Yamal JM, Trone DW, Rull RP

Using 2014-16 survey data from active duty 33,646 Millennium Cohort Study participants, we assessed the association between their primary military occupational categories (MOC) and self-reported traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained during military service. Adjusting for military and demographic characteristics and pre-service TBI, all MOCs except for health care MOCs were statistically significantly more likely to experience service-related TBI compared with “Administration & Executive” MOCs, while those in “Infantry/Tactical Operations” had the highest odds of service-related TBI. Enlisted (28%) personnel were more likely than officers (24%) to experience a service-related TBI. Results highlight the importance of targeting specific occupational categories for TBI risk reduction and a quantification of risk among enlisted MOCs suggests a need for further research into the causes of TBI.

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Patterns of Smoking and Unhealthy Alcohol Use Following Sexual Trauma Among US Service Members Journal of Traumatic Stress 2017 Oct;30(5):502-511

Seelig AD, Rivera AC, Powell TM, Williams EC, Peterson AV, Littman AJ, Maynard C, Street AE, Bricker JB, Boyko EJ

Following sexual assault while serving in the military, women had double the risk for unhealthy alcohol use relapse while men had 6 times the risk for smoking relapse compared with women and men who did not experience sexual assault, respectively. No other associations between sexual trauma (assault or harassment) and subsequent smoking or unhealthy alcohol use were observed. Substance use prevention measures are recommended for those who experience sexual assault and have a history of smoking and unhealthy alcohol use.

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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Predicts Future Weight Change in the Millennium Cohort Study Obesity 2015 Apr;23(4):886-92

LeardMann CA, Woodall KA, Littman AJ, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Wells TS, Crum-Cianflone NF

Data from Millennium Cohort Study participants (2001-2008), consisting of US Service members and Veterans, were used to prospectively examine the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and weight change. A significant and consistent association of PTSD with subsequent three-year weight gain and the development of obesity was found in adjusted models. Given these findings, weight gain and development of obesity should be considered important comorbidities for PTSD; existing screening and treatment programs should make sure to address these associated conditions.

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Postcards Encourage Participant Updates Epidemiology 2009 Mar;20(2):313-4

Welch KE, LeardMann CA, Jacobson IG, Speigle SJ, Smith B, Smith TC, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

The results of this study quantify and confirm that semiannual appreciatory contact is an effective way to maintain communication with a highly mobile participant population while prompting updates of contact information.

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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Among US Military Health Care Professionals Deployed in Support of the Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan Journal of Traumatic Stress 2012 Dec;25(6):616-23

Jacobson IG, Horton JL, LeardMann CA, Ryan MAK, Boyko EJ, Wells TS, Smith B, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Among military personnel deployed with combat experience, health care professionals did not have increased odds for new-onset PTSD or depression over time compared to individuals in other occupations. Combat experience significantly increased the odds for new-onset PTSD or depression among deployed health care professionals, suggesting that combat experience, not features specific to being a health care professional, was the key exposure explaining development of these outcomes.

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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Risk of Selected Autoimmune Diseases among US Military Personnel BMC Psychiatry 2020 Jan 15; 20 (1):23

Bookwalter DB, Roenfeldt KA, LeardMann CA, Kong SY, Riddle MS,Rull RP

This study investigated the association between PTSD and risk of developing selected autoimmune diseases among US active duty service members. Among 120,572 participants followed for an average of 5 years, risk of any of the selected new-onset autoimmune diseases was 58% higher for those with a history of PTSD compared to those with no history. Observed associations did not differ by specific types of trauma experienced. Future research is needed to understand the physiological pathways that may link PTSD with increased risk of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Association With Subsequent Risky and Problem Drinking Initiation Journal of Addiction Medicine 2018 Sep/Oct;12(5):353-362

Bensley KM, Seelig AD, Armenta RF, Rivera AC, Peterson AV, Jacobson IG, Littman AJ, Maynard C, Bricker JB, Boyko EJ, Rull RP, and Williams EC

This study investigated the association between PTSD symptoms and symptom clusters and the initiation of risky and problem drinking. One PTSD symptom (irritability/anger) was associated with a higher risk of risky drinking initiation. Five PTSD symptoms (restricted affect, sense of foreshortened future, exaggerated startle response, sleep disturbance, and irritability/anger) and two symptom clusters (dysphoric arousal and emotional numbing) were associated with an increased risk of problem drinking initiation.

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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Clusters in Service Members Predict New-Onset Depression Among Military Spouses Journal of Traumatic Stress 2020 Sep 3. doi: 10.1002/jts.22575

Walter KH, LeardMann CA, Carballo CE, McMaster HM, Donoho CJ, & Stander VA

Among spouses of service members with probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 14% met criteria for new-onset depression over a 3-year period. The service member’s PTSD symptom cluster of effortful avoidance was associated with an increased risk of new-onset depression in spouses, underscoring the impact of service member psychological symptoms on the spouse.

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