Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Combat Deployment is Associated with Sexual Harassment or Sexual Assault in a Large, Female Military Cohort Women's Health Issues 2013 Jul-Aug;23(4):e215-23

LeardMann CA, Pietrucha A, Magruder KM, Smith B, Murdoch M, Jacobson IG, Ryan MAK, Gackstetter G, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Among female service members, the 3-year cumulative incidence of sexual harassment was 9.4% and sexual assault was 2.1%. Significant risk factors for sexual trauma included prior deployment with combat experience, serving as a Marine, younger age, recent marital separation or divorce, positive screen for a prior mental health condition, moderate/severe life stress, and prior sexual trauma experiences. Understanding the factors associated with sexual harassment and assault can inform future policy and prevention efforts in order to eliminate sexual trauma.

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Combat and Trajectories of Physical Health Functioning in U.S. Service Members American Journal of Preventative Medicine 2019 Nov;57(5):637-644

Porter B, Bonanno GA, Bliese PD, Phillips CJ, Proctor SP for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Combat is detrimental to long-term physical health functioning among deployed service members, but other pre-deployment modifiable factors like body size and smoking status had stronger associations with subsequent trajectories. This indicates the negative impact of combat may be mitigated through pre-deployment healthy behaviors.

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Cigarette Smoking and Military Deployment: A Prospective Evaluation American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2008 Dec;35(6):539-46

Smith B, Ryan MAK, Wingard DL, Patterson TL, Slymen DJ, Macera CA, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Findings suggest an increase in smoking initiation and recidivism among deployers and highlight the importance of prevention strategies pre, during, and post deployment.

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Cigarette smoking patterns among U.S. military service members before and after separation from the military. PLoS One. 2021 Oct 4;16(10):e0257539

Nieh C, Mancuso JD, Powell TM, Welsh MM, Gackstetter GD, Hooper TI.

Millennium Cohort Study data were used to examine smoking behavior at enrollment into the study and through their first follow-up survey, approximately 3 years later. Time remaining in service from baseline until separation or the first follow-up survey was the main exposure of interest. The baseline prevalence of smoking in the Cohort was higher among those who eventually separated (20.1%) than among those who remained on active service (17.4%), but the overall prevalence of current smokers significantly declined over the observation period. Factors significantly associated with greater likelihood of smoking at follow- up were baseline smoking, non-White Hispanic individuals, being non-married, enlisted rank, underweight or healthy BMI, active duty component, any alcohol consumption, experiencing two or more stressful life events, and screening positive for either PTSD or depression. Including smoking prevention and/or cessation programs in pre-separation counseling sessions and developing smoking screening and cessation programs targeting high-risk subgroups may reduce smoking among Service members and veterans.

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Chronic Multisymptom Illness: A Comparison of Iraq and Afghanistan Deployers with 1991 Gulf War Veterans American Journal of Epidemiology 2014;180(12):1176-1187

Smith TC, Powell TM, Jacobson IG, Smith B, Hooper TI, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD

These data highlight a difference in CMI reporting when comparing deployed to non-deployed military members. While symptom reporting in this contemporary Cohort occurred less frequently than in the historical 1991 GW cohort, increased CMI reporting was noted among deployed compared to non-deployed contemporary Cohort members.

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Changes in Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines After Discharge from the Military Journal of Physical Activity Health 2015 May;12(5):666-674

Littman AJ, Jacobson IG, Boyko EJ, Smith TC

Using data from Millennium Cohort Study participants, we investigated changes in meeting federal Physical Activity Guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) following military discharge. MVPA declined more in those who were discharged than those who were not (-17.8 percentage points vs. -2.7 percentage points), with greater declines in former active-duty personnel, those who had deployed with combat exposures, had 14-25 years of service, and had been discharged more recently (<1 year prior). Reductions in MVPA were substantial and unexpected. Increased understanding of transitional periods that may benefit from interventions to mitigate declines in physical activity will help prevent excess weight gain and physical inactivity-associated health consequences.

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Challenges of Self-Reported Medical Conditions and Electronic Medical Records Among Members of a Large Military Cohort BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 Jun;8:37

Smith B, Chu LK, Smith TC, Amoroso PJ, Boyko EJ, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This report highlights the importance of assessing medical conditions from multiple electronic and self-reported sources.

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Body Building, Energy, and Weight Loss Supplements are Associated with Deployment and Physical Activity in US Military Personnel Annals of Epidemiology 2012;22:318-330

Jacobson IG, Horton JL, Smith B, Wells TS, Boyko EJ, Lieberman HR, Ryan MAK, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Nearly half of the population studied reported use of energy, body building, or weight loss supplements, with energy supplements being the most highly endorsed (38%) supplement type. Deployment experience, physical activity, problem drinking, and suboptimal sleep emerged as important characteristics associated with supplement use, which may be of importance to medical planners and military policy makers in targeting adverse event monitoring and for future research determining how supplements affect performance and health over time.

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Baseline Self-Reported Functional Health Predicts Vulnerability to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Combat Deployment: Prospective US Military Cohort Study British Medical Journal 2009 Apr;338:b1273

LeardMann CA, Smith TC, Smith B, Wells TS, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Military service members who screen in the lowest 15% of health prior to combat exposure are more vulnerable to developing postdeployment PTSD.

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Associations of Military Divorce with Mental, Behavioral, and Physical Health Outcomes BMC Psychiatry 2015; 15:128

Wang L, Seelig AD, MacDermid Wadsworth S, McMaster HS, Alcarez J, Crum-Cianflone NF

This prospective study investigated the associations of recent divorce with health outcomes among US Service members. Findings indicate that recent divorce is associated with adverse mental health outcomes, including new-onset PTSD and depression, and risky behaviors, such as smoking initiation and new-onset alcohol-related problems, after adjusting for relevant demographics and covariates. Given these findings, it is important to make sure resources are available to support recently divorced Service members, since divorce may not only affect personal quality of life, but also military force readiness.

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