Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
A Decade of War: Prospective Trajectories of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among Deployed US Military Personnel and the Influence of Combat Exposure American Journal of Epidemiology 15 December 2017;186(12):1310–1318.

Donoho CJ, Bonanno GA, Porter B, Kearney L, Powell TM

Using survey data collected at four different time points over a 10-year study period, four distinct patterns of PTSD symptoms were observed among deployed personnel. More than 85% of participants were found to be resilient with almost no PTSD symptoms. Despite similarity in pre-deployment symptoms, those experiencing combat-related trauma had higher PTSD symptom levels following deployment across every trajectory compared with those not exposed to combat-related trauma. These findings suggest the clinical course of PTSD symptoms has a heterogeneous pattern of development, but that combat exposure is uniformly associated with poorer mental health.

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A Comparison of the PRIME-MD PHQ-9 and PHQ-8 in a Large Military Prospective Study, The Millennium Cohort Study Journal of Affective Disorders May 2013; 148(1): 77-83

Wells TS, Horton JL, LeardMann CA, Jacobson IG, and Boyko EJ

The PHQ-9 is a validated tool for depression screening, however recently an abbreviated version (PHQ-8) is increasingly being used in survey research that excludes the last and most sensitive item. This study compared the performance of the PHQ-8 with the PHQ-9 in a large, population-based sample of current and former military service members. Excellent agreement was detected between the two instruments, suggesting that the PHQ-8 performs well when screening for depression in similar populations.

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A Comparison of Mental Health Outcomes in Persons Entering US Military Service Before and After September 11, 2001 Journal of Traumatic Stress 2012 Feb;25: 17-24

Wells TS, Ryan MAK, Jones KA, Hooper TI, Boyko EJ, Jacobson IG, Smith TC, Gackstetter GD, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

It is hypothesized that those who entered military service prior to September 11, 2001 might have had expectations of experiencing a regular operational tempo and less combat compared with those entering service after this date, therefore an increased risk for mental disorders. Although measuring the direct reason for entering the military was not possible for this study, the findings showed that those entering pre-September 11 did not have a higher odds of mental disorders, suggesting that mental disorders resulting from the experience of war are common across the pre- and post-September 11 accession eras.

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US Naval and Marine Corps Occupations, PTSD and Depression Risk and Absenteeism Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health 2014;29(2):91–112

Wells TS, Bagnell ME, Miller SC, Smith TC, Gackstetter GD and Boyko EJ for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study investigated whether military occupation was associated with PTSD or depression, and if PTSD or depression was associated with lost workdays among US Navy and US Marine personnel. Navy personnel in service and supply occupations were 85% more likely to screen positive for new-onset PTSD, while those serving in health care were 58% more likely to screen positive for new-onset depression compared to other occupations. In addition, those with new-onset and persistent PTSD were twice as likely to miss one or more days of work. This suggests that early identification and management of these conditions may improve force readiness.

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Association of deployment with maintenance of healthy weight among active duty service members in the Millennium Cohort Study Obesity Science and Practice 2021; 1- 7. doi:10.1002/osp4.556

Carey FR, Jacobson IG, Roenfeldt KA, Rull RP

Understanding changes in weight in relation to deployment readiness can inform Department of Defense fitness policies. This study examined longitudinal associations between deployment and service branch-specific changes in body mass index (BMI) among active duty participants without obesity (BMI< 30kg/m2) at baseline (n=22,995). Service members, particularly Army and Marine Corps personnel, with longer deployments were less likely to maintain a healthy weight (BMI < 30) than those with shorter deployment lengths. Conversely, each additional deployment increased the likelihood of maintaining a healthy weight post-deployment for personnel in the Army, Marine Corps, and within the pooled population. These results indicate that multiple deployments may support healthy weight maintenance and longer deployments may adversely impact weight maintenance. Fitness policies designed to optimize service member readiness should consider modifiable behaviors related to weight gain among those who are deployed for long periods of time.

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