Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Prospectively Assessed Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Associated Physical Activity Public Health Reports 2011 May/Jun;126(3):371-83

LeardMann CA, Kelton ML, Smith B, Littman AJ, Boyko EJ, Wells TS, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Nearly 90% of the Cohort participate in some level of physical activity. Engagement in physical activity, specifically vigorous activity, was associated with decreased odds of PTSD symptoms. While further research is needed, a physical activity component may be valuable to treat and/or prevent PTSD among service members.

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PTSD Prevalence, Associated Exposures, and Functional Health Outcomes in a Large, Population-Based Military Cohort Public Health Report 2009 Jan;124:90-102

Smith TC, Wingard DL, Ryan MAK, Kritz-Silverstein D, Slymen DJ, Sallis JF, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Findings suggest a 2% prevalence of current PTSD symptoms in the US Military that are associated with increased reporting of exposures and decrements in functional health.

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Racial, Ethnic, and Sex Disparities in Mental Health Among U.S. Service Members and Veterans: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study American Journal of Epidemiology 2024 Feb 5 | doi: 10.1093/aje/kwad221

Sharifian N, Kolaja CA, LeardMann CA, Castañeda SF, Carey FR, Seay JS, Carlton KN, Rull RP, Millennium Cohort Study Team

Racial, ethnic, and sex disparities in mental health among service members and veterans persist, even after accounting for sociodemographic, military, health-related and social support factors. Despite increased availability to care among military populations, culturally relevant and targeted outreach are still needed to address these disparities.

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Recent Sexual Trauma and Adverse Health and Occupational Outcomes Among US Service Women Journal of Traumatic Stress 2015 Aug;28(4):298-306

Millegan J, Schaller EK, LeardMann CA, Street AE, Williams D, Trone DW, Crum-Cianflone NF

Findings from this study indicate that recent sexual trauma is associated with potential adverse physical health, mental health, and occupational outcomes among women serving in the US armed forces, after adjustment for demographics, prior sexual trauma, mental health, and military factors. Given these findings and the increasing role of women in the military, prevention and mitigation of sexual trauma should remain a high priority and more effective strategies should be developed to prevent sexual trauma.

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Reliability of Standard Health Assessment Instruments in a Large, Population-Based Cohort Study Annals of Epidemiology 2007 Jul;17(7):525-32

Smith TC, Smith B, Jacobson IG, Corbeil TE, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Reliability metrics, by test-retest concordance and internal consistency, are extremely strong in Millennium Cohort Study data.

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Report to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives. (July 2020). Section 748 of the National Defense Authorization Actfor Fiscal Year 2020 (Public Law 116-92)Initial Report on Millennium Cohort Study Relating to Women of the Armed Forces

This report is in response to the section 748 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NOAA) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2020 (Public Law 116-92) requirement for the Secretary of Defense to submit a report on "Millennium Cohort Study Relating to Women Members of the Armed Forces" to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives, within 180 days of enactment and annual reports thereafter through January 31, 2022. This initial report describes findings of the Millennium Cohort Study relating to the gynecological and perinatal health of women members of the Armed Forces

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Respiratory Health after Military Service in Southwest Asia and Afghanistan. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report Annals of the American Thoracic Society 2019 Aug;16(8):e1-e16

Garshick E, Abraham JH, Baird CP, Ciminera P, Downey GP, Falvo MJ, Hart JE, Jackson DA, Jerrett M, Kuschner W, Helmer DA, Jones KD, Krefft SD, Mallon T, Miller RF, Morris MJ, Proctor SP, Redlich CA, Rose CS, Rull RP, Saers J, Schneiderman AI, Smith NL, Yiallouros P, Blanc PD

This workshop report identified key studies, including the Millennium Cohort Study, for assessing post-deployment and long-term respiratory health as well as emerging research and current knowledge gaps.

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Risk and Protective Factors for Cancer Mortality Among United States Service Members and Veterans (2001-2018) Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2023 May 1 | doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-22-0943

Sharifian N, Carey FR, Seay JS, Castaneda SF, Boyko EJ, Rull RP

This longitudinal study used data from the Millennium Cohort Study (2001-2018) to examine risk and protective factors for cancer mortality among service members and veterans . Compared with those who deployed without combat experiences, non-deployers were more likely to die from cancer, consistent with the healthy deployer effect.

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Risk Factors Associated with Miscarriage and Impaired Fecundity Among United States Servicewomen During the Recent Conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan Women's Health Issues 2017 Feb;27(3):356-365

Ippolito AC, Seelig AD, Powell TM, Conlin AMS, Crum-Cianflone NF, Lemus H, Sevick CS, LeardMann CA

Among Servicewomen aged 18-45 years, 31% reported a miscarriage and 11% reported impaired fecundity (infertility) during a 3-year study period. Findings suggest that deployments in support of the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan do not increase the risk for miscarriage and infertility among U.S. Servicewomen. More research is needed to better understand whether specific combat experiences or environmental exposures encountered during deployments increase the risk for adverse reproductive health outcomes.

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Risk Factors Associated with Suicide in Current and Former US Military Personnel Journal of the American Medical Association 2013;310(5):496-506

LeardMann CA, Powell TM, Smith TC, Bell MR, Smith B, Boyko EJ, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, Ghamsary M, Hoge CW

Based on data from over 150,000 current and former service members from all service branches, 83 suicide deaths occurred in 707,493 person-years from 2001 through 2008 (11.73/100,000 person-years). Suicide risk was independently associated with depression, manic-depressive disorder, alcohol-related problems, and male gender. None of the deployment or military-related factors were associated with an increased risk for suicide. Assessing service members' prior psychiatric history as well as screening for and treating mental and substance abuse disorders may provide the best potential for mitigating suicide risk.

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