Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
A Comparison of the PRIME-MD PHQ-9 and PHQ-8 in a Large Military Prospective Study, The Millennium Cohort Study Journal of Affective Disorders May 2013; 148(1): 77-83

Wells TS, Horton JL, LeardMann CA, Jacobson IG, and Boyko EJ

The PHQ-9 is a validated tool for depression screening, however recently an abbreviated version (PHQ-8) is increasingly being used in survey research that excludes the last and most sensitive item. This study compared the performance of the PHQ-8 with the PHQ-9 in a large, population-based sample of current and former military service members. Excellent agreement was detected between the two instruments, suggesting that the PHQ-8 performs well when screening for depression in similar populations.

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Millennium Cohort: The 2001-2003 Baseline Prevalence of Mental Disorders in the US Military Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2007 Feb;60(2):192-201

Riddle JR, Smith TC, Smith B, Corbeil TE, Engel CC, Wells TS, Hoge CW, Adkins J, Zamorski M, Blazer D, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

The baseline prevalence of mental disorders in this 22-year longitudinal study compares favorably with other civilian and military populations.

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Millennium Cohort: Enrollment Begins a 21-year Contribution to Understanding the Impact of Military Service Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2007 Feb;60(2):181-91

Ryan MA, Smith TC, Smith B, Amoroso P, Boyko EJ, Gray GC, Gackstetter GD, Riddle JR, Wells TS, Gumbs G, Corbeil TE, Hooper TI, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

A foundation report, this describes original enrollment methods and challenges of the Millennium Cohort Study. Characteristics of the first 77,047 participants are detailed and shown to strongly represent the population-based sample of the US military from which they were drawn.

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The effect of combat exposure on veteran homelessness Journal of Housing Economics Information 49,101711

Ackerman A, Porter B, Sullivan R

Homelessness is a serious problem among veterans, but how military service contributes to the risk of homelessness is unclear. This study examined the impact of witnessing another's death (a proxy for combat) on likelihood of reporting homelessness. One exposure was associated with a 0.6% increase in homelessness. Extrapolated to the overall population, combat exposure is expected to contribute to 4,600 instances of homeless veterans.

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Hypertension in Military Veterans Is Associated With Combat Exposure and Combat Injury Journal of Hypertension 2020 Jul;38(7):1293-1301

Howard JT, Stewart IJ, Kolaja C, Sosnov JA, Rull R, Torres I, Janak JC, Walker LE, Trone DW, Armenta RF

This study examined the association between combat injury and incident hypertension. We found that those who were injured during combat were more likely to develop hypertension. Further, inadequate sleep, having PTSD, and being overweight or obese were associated with developing hypertension. Results highlight the importance of hypertension prevention among those who are injured during their time in service.

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Sexual Harassment, Sexual Assault, and Physical Activity Among U.S. Military Service Members in the Millennium Cohort Study Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2019 Mar 2;886260519832904. doi: 10.1177/0886260519832904

Thomas CL, Nieh C, Hooper TI, Gackstetter GD, LeardMann CA, Porter B, Blazer DG; for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This study examined the association of recent sexual trauma with subsequent physical activity levels among service members. The findings indicate that personnel who experienced sexual assault were more likely to report high levels of physical activity (300+ mins/week), while those who reported sexual harassment were less likely to engage in medium-high levels of physical activity (300-449 mins/week), compared with those without sexual harassment or sexual assault. This study highlights how coping responses to sexual trauma among current military members may be intertwined with physical activity.

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Self-Reported Mental Health Among US Military Personnel, Prior and Subsequent to the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2004 Aug;46(8):775-82

Smith TC, Smith B, Corbeil TE, Riddle JR, and Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Accepted without revision and featured by journal editors, this early analysis leveraged Millennium Cohort data to conclude that military members displayed stronger mental health characteristics soon after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The authors suggest this may be attributed to resilience and/or an outpouring of support for the US military mission.

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Impact of Terrorism on Caffeine and Tobacco Use Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2004 Dec;46(12):1194-5

Smith TC, Smith B, Corbeil TE, Ryan MAK, Riddle JR, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

[letter in response to "Self-reported mental health among US military personnel, prior and subsequent to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001"]

Authors of a previously highlighted article respond to important suggestions on future analyses.

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Health Status of Gulf War and Era Veterans Serving in the US Military in 2000 Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2018 May;60(5):e261-e267

Porter B, Long K, Rull RP, Dursa EK for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

This paper describes Gulf War Veterans and non-deployed Gulf era personnel enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study. Comparing distributions of survey responses with those from a population-based sample collected by the VA, we found that Millennium Cohort participants reported slightly better health, particularly regarding mental health. The Millennium Cohort Study is an important resource for investigating the health effects of Gulf War deployment.

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The US Department of Defense Millennium Cohort Study: Career Span and Beyond Longitudinal Follow-Up Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2009 Oct;51(10):1193-1201

Smith TS, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Describes the Millennium Cohort Study, a large longitudinal occupational health study designed and initiated prior to the combat deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan specifically to assess any short or long-term health outcomes during and after military service and career.

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