Publications

The following manuscripts have been published or are currently in press. Listings are in chronological order, unless otherwise noted.

Research Publication 2
Title Publication Date/Location
Sleep Characteristics, Mental Health, and Diabetes Risk: A Prospective Study of US Military Service Members in the Millennium Cohort Study Diabetes Care 2013 Oct;36(10):3154-61

Boyko EJ, Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Hooper TI, Smith B, Smith TC, Crum-Cianflone NF

We investigated whether poor sleep and mental health symptoms were independently related to diabetes risk. During 6 years of follow-up, the annual incidence rate for type 2 diabetes was 3.6/1,000 person years. After adjusting for covariates including mental health disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, both trouble sleeping and sleep apnea significantly predicted diabetes risk independent of these mental health conditions and other diabetes risk factors.

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Sleep Patterns Before, During, and After Deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan Sleep 2010 Dec;33(12):1615-22

Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Smith B, Hooper TI, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Gehrman PR, Macera CA, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Participants reported having trouble sleeping and getting less sleep either during deployment or after returning home from deployment more than nondeployed participants. Self-reported combat exposures and mental health symptoms were independently associated with increased reporting of trouble sleeping.

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Smallpox Vaccination: Comparison of Self-Reported and Electronic Vaccine Records in the Millennium Cohort Study Human Vaccines 2007 Nov/Dec;3(6):245-51

LeardMann CA, Smith B, Smith TC, Wells TS, Ryan MAK, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Self-report of smallpox vaccination is very reliable. Results may be valuable in supporting global response to bioterrorism threats.

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Smokeless Tobacco Use Related to Military Deployment, Cigarettes, and Mental Health Symptoms in a Large, Prospective Cohort Study Among US Service Members Addiction 2012 May;107(5):983-994

Hermes ED, Wells TS, Smith B, Boyko EJ, Gackstetter GD, Miller SC, Smith TC, for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Chronic use of smokeless tobacco has been linked to poor military training performance, early discharge, and a host of medical problems from cancer to heart disease. Smokeless tobacco initiation occurred in 1.9% and persistent use in 8.9% of Millennium Cohort participants. The study showed that deployment, combat exposure, smoking, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder increased the risk for smokeless tobacco initiation, while deployment and combat exposure increased the risk for persistent use.

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Smoking Among U.S. Service Members Following Transition From Military to Veteran Status Health Promotion Practice 2020 Jan;21(1_suppl):165S-175S

Nieh C, Powell TM, Gackstetter GD, Hooper TI

This study examined whether the time period just prior to military separation or the reasons for separation were associated with smoking among veterans. We found that service members are more likely to smoke when closer to their military separation date. The smoking prevalence among service members separating within 3 months was 23%, whereas 17% was observed among those separating in 2+ years. We also found that veterans who were heavy drinkers were 50% more likely to smoke and those with a standards/judicial-related separation reason were 69% more likely to smoke.

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Suicides Among Military Personnel Reply Journal of the American Medical Association 2013 Dec;310(23):2565-2566

Hoge CW, LeardMann CA, Boyko EJ

Discusses the complexity of suicidal behaviors and some challenges related to this type of research, while highlighting the strengths of using data from the Millennium Cohort to study suicide.

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Surveillance Snapshot: Cervical Screening among U.S. Military Servicewomen in the Millennium Cohort Study, 2003–2015 Medical Surveillance Monthly Report 2020 Jul;27(7):15

Matsuno RK, Porter B, Warner SG, Wells N for the Millennium Cohort Study Team

Across a 13 year period (2003-2015), the percentage of U.S. service women who were up-to-date with cervical cancer screening peaked in 2010, then declined. Screening was generally highest among Air Force personnel and lowest among Navy personnel. Being up-to-date was higher for servicewomen who had initiated the HPV vaccine than for women who had not.

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Surveillance Snapshot: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among U.S. Active Component Service Members in the Millennium Cohort Study, 2006–2017 Medical Surveillance Monthly Report 2019 Jun;26(6):18

Matsuno RK, Porter B, Warner SG, Wells N

Among a sample of active component members under the age of 26, (22,387 service women and 31,705 service men), service more women (37.8%) were more likely than service men (3.9%) to initiate receiving the HPV vaccine. Among those who initiated the vaccine, 40.2% of women and 23.1% of men were adherent to receiving all 3 doses within 1 year. Members of the Air Force and those in healthcare occupations had higher percentages of HPV vaccine initiation and adherence.

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The Association of Predeployment and Deployment-Related Factors on Dimensions of Postdeployment Wellness in US Military Service Members The American Journal of Health Promotion 2013;28:2, 56-66

Bagnell ME, LeardMann CA, McMaster HS, Boyko EJ, Smith B, Granado, NS, and Smith TC

This study found that the majority of participants were well post-deployment, and military factors associated with post-deployment wellness included not experiencing combat and being trained as a combat specialist. Modifiable factors significantly associated with post-deployment wellness were also detected, including normal BMI, not smoking, and being physically active.

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The effect of combat exposure on financial problems International Review of Economics and Finance 2022 May;79:241-257

Ackerman A, Porter, B

his paper examined whether combat exposure led to new-onset financial problems and financial stress among 64,508 veterans using 2001-2016 data from the Millennium Cohort Study. The average predicted probability of developing a new major financial problem (such as bankruptcy) and greater financial stress increased 0.44% (21% relative to the mean probability) following a single combat exposure and increased 0.90% (43% relative to the mean probability) following multiple combat exposures. The likelihood of financial decline resulting from combat exposure were greater for veterans with poorer pre-deployment mental or physical health, veterans in enlisted ranks, and younger veterans between the ages of 26 and 36. These results translate to a crude cost estimate of lost productivity of at least $41 million and up to 3,629 bankruptcies for the 2.7 million veterans (1.34 per 1,000) deployed from 2001 through 2016.

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